Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Russian Mafia - Research Paper ExampleAs Mallory (2006) points out, The Russian organized evil started in US when Soviet whitlows started entering the US making use of the liberalized immigration policies of the country. An area called Brighton margin in southern Brooklyn emerged as their gist of operations (p, 76). They emerged as a widespread criminal center in the North America in the following years engaging in criminal activities including medicate trafficking, extortion, loan sharking, human trafficking, prostitution etc. The Russian mafia comprises of Ethnic criminal gangs comprising of Russian, Chechen, Armenian, Georgian, Azerbaijani criminal groups. The Russian mafia has tie ups with American-Italian criminal network La Cosa Nostra on enterprises like gambling, extortion, prostitution and fraud. fit in to a report given by FBI director Louis Freeh to the US senate, 27 groups belonging to the Russian mafia are operating in the United States, and they are conceived to be based around cities like San Francisco, Los Angeles, Miami, stops and New York (CIS Report, 1997).The FBI uses various methods like undercover operations, confidential entities, reports from the intelligence bureau, patrolling, forensic accounting etc. to lede down such groups. FBI also joins hands with former(a) federal investigation agencies like the CIA, and also cooperates with agencies of other countries to capitalize information. The FBI and CIA have employed secret agents worldwide who collect information about potential attacks, conspiracies, and illicit activities taking place against the country. Based on the data they collect from various sources, they form a police captain plan on how to confront the groups. Russian mafia is so powerful since they cooperate with other mafia organizations, and have financial pumping from all over the world. This makes them one of the most dangerous criminal setups in the world. Evidently, an lucubrate
Monday, April 29, 2019
Ip2 team and leadership - Research Paper ExampleBased on such(prenominal) a perspective, this paper develops a training guide by analyzing how different aspects affect management and leadership.A number of factors affect leadership and its exitiveness. such aspects overwhelm personalities, values, attitudes, cognitive differences, emotions, and charisma among others. Personalities work to build effrontery and respect among individuals that one gets involved with others. Other aspects including attitudes, cognitive differences, and emotions enable one to understand how to work with others towards the operation of other goals (Hawkins, 2011). Courage is a characteristic of leaders enabling them to be different from the norm, establish detach changes, and provide for new opportunities (Fisher, 2000). Together with morals, courage enhances the ability of an effective leader to tackle new liveliness challenges without hurting them in any way in driving a particular agenda for the training of an organization.There are five sources of power, which every leader should possess, in order to provide effective leadership. Such include expert power involving a significant domain of knowledge and skills, positional power, as is the theatrical role of an organizational CEO, reward power, which works as an influence on the followers of a particular leader. Others include coercive power, the power required to effect discipline among the followers, and personal power that enables a leader to effect personal feeling towards the performance of an individual (Wu,
Sunday, April 28, 2019
The Strategic Connotations of Corporate neighborly duty on the Performance and Sustainability of UK Banks - Dissertation ExampleThis report declare that Corporate Social Responsibility has become an indispensable element amongst the current day business organizations. Over and above enhancing their operational and financial performances, it had become obligatory for the organizations to concentrate in the same way on social aspects such as, biodiversity, dearth of food and water, weather change, environmental safety, and poverty etc. This is owing to the fact that the various groups of stakeholders are subtile to know how the business houses render to the overall society and lend a hand in the growing of a sustainable planet, rather than concentrating merely on their business activities.This discusion explores that banks, amongst all the financial services organizations, induce become increasingly proactive about corporate social responsibility activities owing to the pressure s from the society as nearly as the government and other regulatory bodies. There are number of pains initiatives that grant sustainable activities among banks, namely, Equator Principles, United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative, London Principles etc. These initiatives have been formulated to set up guiding principles and framework for banks to take up lending policies that are socially as well as environmentally sound. However, there are number of aspects that have been continuously discussed amongst researchers. These include, to what degree these initiatives have impacted the operations of the banks, what are the issues that impel the banks to pursue and take on these initiatives, whether these initiatives are only meant to guarantee long depot success and improvement of brand name and do not have much to do with fellowship in sustainable development. Thus, this would be appealing to treasure how the social responsibility issues and initiatives influence t he CSR activities of banks and how do these initiatives contribute to the accomplishment of the banks strategic goals and above all to its overall sustainable development. Research intent The chief objective of this research is to identify the aspects of reaction of the UK based Banks to matters pertaining to sustainability by endowing with a clear erudition of the present activities of the banking industry in terms of sustainability. To be specific, this research study would attempt to illustrate the sustainability issues that the banking industry is UK is encountering, assess the condition of the sustainable banking plans at the banking industry or organization levels of UK. The study would also evaluate the function of different stakeholders and their impact on sustainable banking in addition to assessing the impelling factors as well as the difficulties of sustainable banking in the UK banking industry. The research study wo
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Health Safety and Security Practices - appellative ExampleBelonging is all about having a relationship that is secure or having a tie-up with the customers, as well as the workings staffs. In a salon, having the security of belonging is important in maintaining a good relationship with other people in the working environment. It is also important in boosting individuals self-esteem making one has the courage to do his or her job perfectly. Therefore, in each working environment, the sole priority of the leader is to encourage and catch that all the working staffs develop a sensation of security to avoid any misunderstanding and quarrels. Additionally, one should ensure that the client belongings are base hit and secure. Prior to hanging any coats, counterchecking the pockets remain vital, remove all the important items and keep them in a safe place.In a salon, there are different types of solid as well as liquid wastes that require safe disposal. By disposing of the materials safely, the environment testament be protected from causing any potential harm. In disposing of the materials, salon policies for hazardous wastes and management must be followed correctly. All the sharp materials in the salon such as needles and pins should be safely be given up of in sharp boxes. The scale down chemicals should be disposed of in running water. The single used items such as gloves should be disposed of in peddle bins. Finally, the materials that can be recycled are put in recycled empties for decontamination and drying.Before an emergency occurs, ensure that the emergency equipment is in place and working. The first aid box should contain all the needed materials that will be used in an event of an emergency. The bang extinguishers should be in a strategic spot where it can be accessed and in a working condition. In a case of an emergency, call the ambulance and the fire extinguishers. Inform all the people to go to fire assembly points.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Legitimation Problems in Late Capitalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Legitimation Problems in Late capitalism - Essay ExampleThe term legitimation is derived from Weberian sociological tradition, whereas the term crisis is a derivative of and from the Marxist analysis of capitalist economy (Ramussen.1976). Let us first attempt to discuss the key terms legitimation and crises and how these terms although derivatives of earlier theme have been given new meanings through Habermasian analysis. It needs to be understood that Habermas has drawn critical distinctions, befuddled but distinct boundaries between sociological evolution on the partly historical and partly sociological continuum. His estimation of advanced Capitalism is different from what Karl Marx analyzed and prophesied about. Marx had analyzed the Capitalism of liberal capitalism mixed bag which functioned without state intervention an Adam Smithsonian Laiisez-Fare capitalism. It had its own crisis, which Marx analyzed and perhaps predicted. Whereas the object or rather inherent focus of Habermasian analysis is modern, advanced capitalism with its unique attributes of state intervention and its concomitant urge for a value structure of its own, it therefore has its own particular form of crisis relating to legitimation and eventually motivation (ibid. pp.350). The term Legitimation has its root in the Weberian tradition, in weberian usage the term occurs with its counterpart of domination (Ramussen.1976), a legitimate stratification of order and for order in the society, expressed in the form of legal system, a codification of dominant values, whereas Habermasian Legitimation is devoid of its unembellished baggage of domination, and is establish on communicative competence (Habermas. 1975).Having discussed the key terms and their basis of occurring in the Habermasian analysis, let us today move on to attempting to trace the roots of this conceptualization. It may be argued that Habermass point of departure about autobiography of development of social theory is de rived from Aristotles distinction between episteme and phronesis, between science and prudence (Ramussen.1976). This distinction leave behinds a useful preserve for politics from the stark and empiricist basis. Because the philosophy modeled on (pure episteme) would give priority to an elitist control, as natural science sought to control nature(ibid). Therefore it may be understood that the precedence of phronesis all over episteme forms the basis of core assumptions for Habermas. Moving further from these premises a brief reference can be made to Habermass critique of Marx in interpretation of relationship of philosophy and science. The relationship between the two has been termed as ambiguous at best (ibid). However the Habermas does not seem to agree with Marxs assumption that science itself would provide the grounds for the salvation of modern society. In Habermass own view it is necessary, in light of the adjudged failure of Marxs analysis, to await the quest of a critical theory of society which will eventuate in human liberation (Habermas. 1976). It is right off pertinent to take recourse to what Habermas has conceptualized. At the outset the argument begins with the stated purpose of achieving A neighborly scientific Concept of Crisis inimical to State-regulated capitalism (Habermas.1976.pp.1). Initially a theoretical framework is defined based on an
Thursday, April 25, 2019
The threat of cybercrime is rising sharply, experts have warned at the World Economic Forum in Davos. Online theft costs $1 tril - Essay ExampleThe final section is the conclusion and recommendations, in which the issues are wrapped up and the recommendations are put forth. The recommendations are basically that more countries need to be a part of the agreement, the countries that are a part of the accord need to have their law harmonized, and businesses need to weigh security measures more seriously. Introduction The advent of the Internet has brought a variety of threats, and the biggest threat is that of cybercrime. Cybercrime can be anything from hacking to copyright infringement to possession of child pornography. The European Council has attempted to address the threats by implementing a accordance that was write by some 22 countries and ratified by 23 more. Known as the convening on Cybercrime, this treaty sought to harmonize domestic laws for the constituent states, w hile making prosecution of cybercriminals evidently easier, as the offenses became extraditable and the nations agreed to work together to help one a nonher fight these crimes. While this treaty has done some good, in that it has served as a model for other countries that were not signatories to the treaty, it has its flaws as well. unrivaled of the major flaws is that it does not encompass countries that have the most problems with cybercrime. Another flaw is that the countries that have signed the treaty or ratified it have not implemented the provisions in a uniform fashion, or at all. What this means is that cybercrime is still a problem. How much of a problem it is will be examined by looking into the UK, and assessing the damage that cybercrime has done to its economy. As the UK is a developed country that should be able to beleaguer cybercrime better than most countries, it is a good bellwether as to how serious cybercrime still is. And the numbers are not good. 1.0 The Co uncil of Europe Convention on Cybercrime What it is, what it does, and its limitations 1.1 What it is The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (hereinafter treaty) was a treaty that was signed in 2001 that essentially internationalized cybercrime law.1 The treaty was necessitated by the fact that computer crime was not pursued modishly by many countries, and this treaty attempted to address this problem by harmonizing criminal law regarding cyber crimes and commits the signatories to employment their domestic laws to more vigorously pursue these crimes. 2 The provisions of the treaty were enacted in 2004, with 22 countries write the treaty and another 23 countries ratifying it.3 While it was prepared by the Council of Europe, it was prepared with the participation of the United States, Japan, Canada and conspiracy Africa.4 It has also served as a model law for countries that are not signatories to the treaty, as these countries are employ the provisions of the treaty as a guidelines for their own legislation.5 Title I of the Act essentially forces the member states to use their domestic laws to make certain actions criminal. It beard the parties to the convention to use their domestic laws to criminalize an item-by-item accessing a computer without having the right to do so. It also stated that a member may require that the individual accesses the computer by breaching security with the intent to steal data or another thieving(prenominal) intent.6 Hence, the treaty left it open to the signing countries if they wanted to make their laws state that any kind of unlicensed access is
Social Problem - Research Paper ExampleThis essay is a critical valuation of crime as a social problem in the society a well as the measures that can be put into place to ensure that the vice is contained for the welfare and the security of citizens in the world.The number of crime has risen significantly in the society. To some extent, this can be attributed to the invention of lethal weapons such(prenominal) as guns and ammunition especially during the world wars whereby the various super powers were battling over military superiority (Mednick, 2001). This sawing machine the invention of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear bombs, assault rifles, and grenades as well as other small arms such as pistols and bayonets. Whereas the initial intention of these discoveries was for the protection of the nations sovereignty through military empowerment, the end result was that the equipment found their way into the civilian hands each accidentally or through illegal means. For e xample, it is approximated that 190,000 weapons issued to Iraq forces in the year 2007 can not be accounted for by the US department of defense (Dunbar, 2006). Probably, the arms found their way into the wrong hands of illegal forces who tucker a great risk to the security of civilians as well as government forces that are turn up to maintain law and order.People commit crimes due to a variety of reasons. These reasons are for example associate pressure (Mednick, 2001). This refers to the influence that people may have on the conduct of their friends who could be of the same senesce group as they are or even older who may decide to follow the habits of others without mocking the moral aspect of what they intend to do as long as it satisfies their worldly fantasies. Such groups introduces their friends to crimes such as drug trafficking which is a well paying but risky vice bearing in mind of the consequences that one would face once he is arrested.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
System Dynamic Modeling Methodology - search ExampleSystem dynamics is the study and application of how the trunk works and how it could be improved upon and do more efficient.From the management point of view, system dynamics is an indispensable tool without which any attempt at effective decision making is fraught with grave risks and danger to the enterprise. Even so, decisions based on punctilious implementation of system dynamics are no guarantee for sure success, although they may help to around extent in maintaining the status quo after thorough trial and testing.As an aid to decision making, system dynamics has no alternative. It monopolizes the entire realm of factors, utilities, activities, tools, elements, and even incentives and motivations that go into the outcome of a single product. It is the source from which the management could hope to draw the fruits, and the pruning from which better growth could be ensured 1.The origins of system dynamics continue the entir e management hierarchy. It is a process which is as much germane(predicate) on the shop trading floor as it is at the highest management level. The theory of system dynamics is based on certain assumptions relevant to the creation and operation of the system that runs the enterprise.The guiding principles for the management of the ecosystem are interlinked with those of the manufacturing units and global warming issues. Each of these is crucially linked to the other and their successful coordination is essential in order to curtail harmful greenhouse make and preserve life and natural resources. The modalities for coordinating multipurpose system dynamics are based on the observation and studies of several disciplines of both natural and manmade order. Ecosystems and ecological processes related to hydrology, hydrochemistry, hydrobiology, piddle bodies, thermodynamics, environmental geography, mathematics and statistics lotion ecosystems and ecology, industrial statistics, wast e and pollution management statistics and approaches to info systems and operations research are some of the strategic features that assume prominence in development of system dynamics modeling methodology. It is necessary to ensure the components comprising to each one system evaluation does not overlap with different disciplines, or even if they do they do not present distorted but precise information in keeping with the identity of the factor or factors the component of the system is tracking. For instance, if there is a single chemical compound contaminating a water body then the component of the system tracking it should be the same for the source of the chemical compound, its prevail and its final destination. 2Advantage/disadvantage (limitation of the method) System dynamics provides constant feedback on the basis of which decisions can be taken and corrective measures applied. Indeed, the utility and scope of the system dynamics rests on its ability to provide informatio n for deciding on the subsequent course of action. Corporate policies and decisions through appropriate use of quantitative analysis and selection of right information could result in better chances of success. One of the major problems with the system is that the
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Discussion Board 2-2 - Essay Example 1 of the important training for sufferingtic counselors is self-awareness. According to Jackson-Cherry and Erford (2014), self-awareness refers to the understanding and knowledge about ones abilities, weaknesses and master key skills. Training on the area is important considering that it enables counselors to monitor their behaviors and enforce effective management to avoid some(prenominal) occurrences or situations that can compromise quality of preaching. Another training area for trauma counselor is self-care. As discussed by Jackson-Cherry and Erford (2014), counseling in crisis conditions usually illicit emotions and depression due to witnessing of suffering people. To survive effectively, trauma counselors require thorough training in self-care so to manage harsh conditions and design proper treatment frameworks and strategiesAn experienced trauma counselor should understand or have ways to know when they act immaterial their profession . One of the ways that counselors can know when they work outside their competence is when involved in countertransference that entails counselors relating true characteristics of individuals handled in the past to the current clients (Jackson-Cherry, 2014). The characteristics referred to here are usually negative and often compromise birth of counselors to clients leading to compromised treatment process.Another way that counselors can know when working outside their competence is with occurrence of burnout. This occurs when counselors feel overworked, have little self-care that results to reduced empathy and detachment from client. Generally, burnouts lead to low job bliss and sometimes increased absenteeism. To resolve the issues, counselors should carry regular self-assessment and seek counseling from colleagues. Counselors should consult and seek command from other professionals in the field of
Monday, April 22, 2019
Production and trade functions - appointee ExampleProduction is a significant function in an organization as it is through it that inputs argon converted in to finished products through a sequence of procedures. It requires efficiency in planning to visualise that inputs are available and converted in to finished products successfully. Production managers need to ensure a facile flow in the work processes as well as enhance innovation and creativity among the employees. The commercializeing function on the other hand is significant in ensuring that an organization meets the needs of consumers. It involves investigating market needs, establishing suitable packaging strategy and ensuring that the products are made available to consumers where needed. Good marketing strategies increase the boilersuit organizational productivity and competitiveness. Some of the conflicts between the marketing and yield functions of an organization could be explained by the spreadhead analysis prop osed by sluttish.Role of Production FunctionProduction function involves setting standards and objectives with regards to what is to be produced and the production process. Quality and quantity of output is closely observed to ensure that organizational targets are met. Lean manufacturing is an advanced strategy of the production function whereby wastage is minimized eyepatch maintaining quality in all the stages of the production process. Slack et al. (2006) pointed out several objectives of the production function from which an organization can prioritize on the few that are likely to help it accomplish a competitive advantage. One of the objectives is to minimize production costs while maximizing output, which is important in the pricing strategy whereby an organization can easily accomplish cost leadership in the market.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Parental Involvement in Childs Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words
Parental Involvement in Childs Education - Essay ExampleThe key findings on the effects of parental social occasion are likewise summarized based on a compilation of recent explore findings.The quality of preparation is one of the major social issues all over the humanness, from developing countries in Africa to super developed ones like America and Europe. The reason is rather easy to see in a world where natural resources are dwindling and the competition for economic power and a high quality of intent is intensifying. Ultimately, the continued economic progress of nations would be determined by the quality of their human resources, which in call on depends on the quality of a nations educational system (Glatthorn, 1999).In America, for example, a government-led initiative that came to be know as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 was meant to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on contend State academic achievement standards and state academic assessment (NCLB, 2002, Section 1001).As the laws main adopt was to improve the quality of education, educators have been asking uncomfortable but important questions as to how such a goal could be attained. Among the many proposed measures that could have a lasting and positive effect on astir(p) education quality is one that is based on the hypothesis that a lack of parental fight is detrimental to a childs education.This paper aims to prove the above hypothesis by using research findings to give that the following proposition is true that increased parental involvement provides beneficial effects on the childs education. to a fault discussed would be several findings on the ways parents get involved in the education of their children which type of involvement works best the effects of parental involvement on student attitudes, self-concept, classroom behavior, and attendance and at what levels of the childs education would parental involvement be useful. These findings are then summarized into seven major insights on the effects of parental involvement on their childrens learning process and ways to encourage and sustain these based on experiences in the U.S.Parental involvement can be characterized in many ways, but all the literary works on the topic agree that it includes various forms by which parents participate in their childrens education and with the way education is carried out in schools. The range of parental involvement activities is wide active tutoring of children at home, helping them with homework, turn role models of positive behavior by showing eagerness to learn and study, or encouraging their children to learn, providing an remove place and time for serious study, and supporting their childrens schooling by attending school functions and participating in school obligations (PTA, student plays, parent-child excursions, etc.).Parents can also extend their involvement outside the home-school environment by political lobbying, volunteering for community-based school projects, or getting public or corporate
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Case Study - screen ExampleThorough assessment shall be made on the suicidal behavior of the child paying attention particularly on the following major areas (1) risk for death and repetition, (2) underlying diagnoses if had already been set as existing, and (3) the promoting factors.The sources of teaching can be derived through conducting interviews and observations to the child and her immediate family. Teachers and classmates are good sources of information too knowing that the child mentioned as being teased in class.The necessary information that should be gathered to ascertain the probable risk factors that triggered the childs suicidal behavior as listed in psychiatric-disorders.com website are the following (1) a family history of suicide or mental health problems, (2) if the child nourish runaway from home, (3) physical, emotional, or sexual abuse experienced by the child at home, (4) a recognized psychiatric such as depression, (5) a relationship breakdown, (6) fami ly disturbance such as divorce, (7) bullying in school, (8) poor exam results, and (9) being diagnosed to have a chronic illness. Also, immediate signs and symptoms of suicidal tendencies (e.g. reckless behavior, threats to stultification self, becoming distant from friends and family, signs of anxiety and depression, use of alcohol or drugs, giving away possessions) shall be gathered. randomness about the childs background can also be derived from interviewing the childs boyfriend, obturate friends, peers, and the familys healthcare provider/consultant. Books, journals and other types of publications related to adolescent suicide can be a good source of information that will aid in further understanding and management of this case.In managing adolescent suicide, the child, being the major source of information, shall be assessed through therapeutic communication and proper observation. rule questions of
Sandmoor Estate Limited - Article Example qualification an idea actually work could non have been possible without the grace of God, prayers of our pargonnts and support from our friends.Due identification goes to Ms. Aliya Saleem for being such a supportive course instructor as healthy as a source of information whenever needed. Without her guidance and timely feedback this report could not have been materialized.The company is working well as compargond to previous year. However, when an isolated ratio analysis was done, it was revealed that still financial position of the company is not appreciable. Moreover, few discrepancies also exist. Like use of multiple depreciation methods, unclear or incorrect auspicate of the number of shares, this leads to false ratio analysis of earning per share. Thus it is recommended that the figures should be clearly stated and discrepancies should be avoided. Auditing, though not mandatory in this case, should be done to gain confidence of the stakeholders rapidly.The secondary stage comprises of the password about the company with the seniors and the colleagues to get their perspective about the same. Internet research was also done to observe potential weaknesses and their solutions.We tried to study the annual report of the firm under observation from different angles. thither are different methods for studying these reports and analyzing it, like ratio analysis and horizontal analysis etc. apiece of the method has its own advantages and disadvantages.For example, the horizontal method is highly affected by the previous years performances. Moreover, the micro and large environment may also vary from one year ot another, the industry situations may also change. To crucify this, we have used the ratio analysis method. Ratio analysis takes the ratios of the quantities of the same year, so there are no chances of the effect of changing environment on the one side of the equation.DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEMThe report yea r of the Sandmoor Estates Limited starts at December 1 and ends on November 30 every year. The financial statements are prepared on annual basis.These statements preparation occupies a key position in the financial reach of the organization. These statements not only serves the purpose of
Friday, April 19, 2019
Answer five questions that explore key concepts, theories, and ideas that gull been explored in the lectures and in the required readings - Assignment ExampleAnalysis with consideration of a particular heyday of view is expressed through lightings of the ikon, sets, colour and the costumes used. In the word picture All That Heaven Allows, the dependence is on artificial set up that reflects false reality in terms of using the technique of colours. colors that are used in the film holds, meanings and different moods as brought come out in the film.There are a number of possible joyfulnesss that are offered in films as brought out by Laura Mulvey. One pleasure brought out is scopophilia that is practiced by the audience that are watching the film and the characters in the film. According to her, the film screen that is watched by the audience acts as a mirror through which the audience are adequate to(p) to see the fictional bodies of human reflected on the screen. Through this , scopophilic pleasure in Cinemas comes about from using some other person as an object of sexual stimulation through the view and credit (Makkai, 2013).In the film Vertigo, the pleasure is illustrated through the argument that ego of male is split in the case of Scottie who is feminized through the identification that he makes with Judy. In the film, there is no demonstration of active male attestatorship but the pictures of the male spectator and therefore it is revealed that fascination of femininity that throws masculine identity into question and also to crisis. Scotties character is brought out under deem lighting and behind objects when he is spying on Madeleine showing a loose male character in the film (Makkai, 2013).Through the theories, there are progresses that are given to domain as an art and are brought out as self-conscious of its own performativity. The theory also brings discipline as art being a complete turnaround from theatre that is more realistic. He ca lled his approach epic theatre contrary to dramatic theatre that he created (Martin & Bial, 2000). In epic theatre, a
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Structural Frame(Jumeriah hotels ) - Assignment ExampleAll these missions be headed by a chairperson and they involve a chain of employees with defined functions. The investment and allocation committee is further divided into three committees including the asset focusing committee, the operations committee, and the development committee, all headed by a chairperson. The decision maker committee is also divided into three groups including the risk management working group, the medical run working group, and the fraud and ethics working group. Authority has been delegated to the executive director committee by the board of director.The management committees operate under the executive committee that has delegated authority to them. The working groups also directly report to the executive committee. This approach to management has been effective for Jumeirah Hotels given that it groups individuals with specialized abilities and skills under a single department to conserve effici ency. Each of the functional units in the organization focuses on a particular aspect of the services in an attempt to ensure quality customer service (Daft, 2010, p. 104). The top management, in which case is the board of directors and the executive committee headed by a chairperson, coordinates all the functions of the different committees into a single cohesive effort towards showdown organizational goals (Jumeirah Group, 2014). This approach could be risky to the organization as the hospitality industry fluctuates rapidly, especially in the contemporary society. In addition, the organizational structure is efficient in environments where the business environment is not prepared towards updating or changing business operations. This organizational structure could be attributed to the success of the organization as it specific functions to different committees within the organization, all of which are aimed at achieving organizational objectives.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Argumantative Resarch - Feminism - Research Paper ExampleIssues related to women right wings and advertity, which are yet to be achieved score the basis of justifying that feminism is still relevant in todays world.Feminism is classified into terce wheels, which concord taken place in different times. Each wave has had its main advocacy in attempts to fight for women equality in the society. Some of the objectives within each wave have been achieved while others have been unachievable, making the debate of feminism continue (Aikau et al 23).Feminism is derived from a Latin word Femina, which refers to a woman. The first wave of feminism was mainly focused on fighting for women rights in relation to choose processes. In early days, women were not given the right to vote during elections. In the UK, a feminist fecal matter referred to as Suffragettes fought for voting rights of women. Members of this group engaged in violent demonstrations and even went to the extent of fasting to discover that women got the right to vote. Today, it is difficult to see such violent feminism movement. During the early days of feminism, there was slight support for feminist movements (Tandon 13).In relation to the first wave of feminism, many countries later accepted to spare women to participate in the voting process. Australia was among the first nations to allow women to vote, but other nations were reluctant is issuing their women the right to vote. Of most surprising is countries such as Saudi Arabia and Brunei still deny their women the right to vote. Considering that it is only a few countries, which still deny women the right to vote, one can sum up that the first wave of feminism has achieved its objectives. Therefore, feminism has lost its relevance as far as women voting rights are pertain (Aikau et al 28).The second wave of feminism began in the 1960s with the main objective of ensuring that men and women were equal in all aspects of life.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
modernness in the 19th Century EssayModernism was a response to the governmental, economic and the tender chaos of the mid-19th atomic number 6. Modernists gestated in the practical usage of knowledge to solve societys problems. For them, disciplines should not be sources of abstract concepts. Modernism in the 19th Century Europe in the mid-19th century was characterized with toppled thrones, repressive regimes, civil wars, executions and exiles. Ordinary citizens ready themselves trapped in one despotic government after another. The promising careers of legion(predicate) artists were ruined, as many of them either died or fled their homelands. The intellectuals, meanwhile, were already too discredited and disillusioned to be able to work for heighten (Barzun, 1990). The ideas that were once regarded as the means to bring about a better world were now contemn and even blamed for the turbulent status quo. Concepts such(prenominal) as liberty, fraternity and equality were dismissed as the products of feeble minds or glib rhetoricians. The images of hard matter and the evil man were embraced as the true representations of reality. attainment and politics eventually became the two most important disciplines of the aforementioned pointedness (Barzun, 1990).Consequently, modernism emerged in the belatedly 19th century. Unlike its predecessor, Romanticism, modernism was a discipline that focused on the commonplace. Emphasis was given to the dull, dreary, close (and) repetitious occurrences of daily manner (Barzun, 1990). The soberness of word and feeling ridiculous replaced the Romanticist notions of love of life and of love itself (Barzun, 1990). Modernism and Progress The prevailing economic situation in the late 19th-century Europe was similarly responsible for the rise of modernism.Urban areas that have separate business, industrial and residential districts proliferated across the continent. Consequently, people during this period assumed a min dset that welcomed innovation instead of constantly relying on past knowledge. Scientific inventions such as steam power, the telegraph and pour forth iron inspired them to come up with to a greater extent innovative means of studying classical fields such as architecture, art, literature, applied arts, literature and music (Marx and Mazlish, 1996). just now put, modernism became synonymous to the usage of traditional subjects to create new ideas that would bring about more progress. The baring of cast iron, for instance, did not result in just railroad bridges. Architects during this period also used cast iron to come up with amazing structures such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. The Eiffel Tower was a novelty in the sense that it was a radically different combination of engineering and art (Marx and Mazlish, 1996). The social sciences, meanwhile, were no longer just an abstract set of theories and principles.Fields such as economics and political science were utilized t o improve public administration and governance. The theories of psychology, such as those of Ernst Mach and Sigmund Freud, were applied to the treatment of mental disorders. In previous centuries, the mentally ill were regarded as a family disgrace and were therefore banished to asylums, where they were treated inhumanely. The studies of Mach and Freud on the human mind would later become part of the foundations of modern-day psychology and psychiatry. Modernism and ReligionIn the context of religion, modernism translated to the (reinterpretation of) rescuerian (doctrines) in terms of the scientific thought of the 19th century (MSN Encarta, 2008). both(prenominal) dogmas of the Roman Catholic and the Protestant Churches were started to be construed as symbolic instead of as literally true. Examples of Modernists in the Roman Catholic Church were theologians George Tyrell, Baron Friedrich von Hugel and Alfred Loisy. Rome responded harshly to them Pope Pius X condemned the movemen t as heretical, false, rash (and) bold on July 3, 1907 (MSN Encarta, 2008).Protestant Modernists such as the German theologians Friedrich Schleiermacher and Albrecht Ritschl, meanwhile, wanted to reconcile sacred dogmas and history with the theory of evolution and discoveries in ancient history, psychology and archaeology. As a result, they did not believe in the literal inspiration of the Bible and the historical accuracy of the Gospels. For them, moral and ethical behavior was more important to Christian life, rather than blind obedience to formal creeds.In addition, church officials should prioritize social activities over academic issues (MSN Encarta, 2008). Conclusion The most noteworthy characteristic of modernism in the 19th century is that it encouraged the practical use of knowledge to solve problems. Ideas of the existing schools of thought during the 19th century were no longer abstract concepts they were actually used to come up with progress. Instead of merely shoutin g Liberty, society and Equality economic principles were applied to ensure wise government spending.And rather than arguing that Jesus Christ is the Savior of the world, it would be easier to make people understand that Jesus Christ was sent on primer to teach human beings to love one another as they love themselves. References Barzun, J. (1990). The Cradle of Modernization. American Scholar, 59, 519-527. Retrieved declination 15, 2008 from EBSCO. Marx, L. , Mazlish, B. (1996). Progress Fact or Illusion? Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press. MSN Encarta. (2008). Modernism (Religion). Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http//encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761568195/Modernism_(religion). html
Monday, April 15, 2019
How did Bobbie Ann Mason`s upbringing in the rural south influence her writing of Shiloh Essay Example for Free
How did Bobbie Ann stonemasons upbringing in the uncouth south influence her writing of battle of Shiloh EssayBobbie Ann mason is considered as whizz of the great American writers from the South. Her personal background as a greyer influenced and set a backdrop for about of her fiction stories. From a sm on the whole country girl who component to read Bobbsey Twins and the Nancy Drew mysteries, Bobbie Ann stonemason has become one of the Americas leading fiction writers. In 1980 The New Yorker published her front story. It took me a desire time to disc over my material, she says. It wasnt a matter of developing writing skills it was a matter of knowing how to obtain things. And it took me a very dogged time to grow up.Id been writing for a long time, but was never capable to see what there was to write about. I unendingly aspired to things a appearance from home, so it took me a long time to look back at home and realize that thats where the center of my thought wa s (Bobbie Ann Masons Homepage). This discourse will try to map out the journey that Bobbie Ann Mason has taken from being except a country girl to being one of Americas leading fiction writers as well as how her upbringing has been manifested in her writings, especially Shiloh. Bobbie Ann Mason was born in 1940 in a small townsfolk in Mayfield, Kentucky.Growing up in her p atomic number 18nts dairy farm, she spent roughly of her childhood days in the typical rural gray setting and experiencing the Southern way of upbringing. (Bobbie Ann Mason, Wikipedia) The first nine (9) years of her educational life were spent in a rural school. Shortly thereafter Bobbie Ann Mason attended a city school where she stayed until her graduation. It was here where she first experienced upkeep in the city and experiencing the hustle and bustle that was absent from the rural setting that she was accustomed to in Kentucky (Webber).It was her love for writings that prompted her to pursue a degree in journalism from the University of Kentucky and resultant roleually attain a Ph. D. in English from the University of Connecticut. (Bobbie Ann Mason, Wikipedia) This seeming duality of her background, growing up in the Southern Setting and highly educated in a metropolitan setting, is reflected within most of her written works (Hunt). Rothstein describes Masons style as a combination of her intellectual sophistication (after all, she had a doctorate degree) and the sense of isolated, yearning existence of her rural characters is one she has never quite shed herself. The influence of growing up in the South is distinctly shown in most of her characters in her stories yet the theme and feel of the story reveals her intellect and cosmopolitan views as well. A perfect example of how Mason reveals this duality is in Shiloh. In Shiloh, Mason shows this through the challenges that the characters bear with some of these intensifys that the characters in experience deal with the nature of human life, the changes brought on by death, the issues on sickness and aging but these changes ar not so common, nor as troublesome, in Masons stories as the changes brought on by a changing society.These changes, as Edwin T. Arnold correctly observes, are brought about by the fact that the present has in effect displaced, transformed, and cheapened the traditional, and Masons characters are depicted as they lose their strengths and beliefs and find nothing substantial to replace them (136) Bobbie Ann Masons writings are mostly set in the South. Her version is more realistic and not romanticized contradictory the works of Faulkner or OConnor (Hunt), she depicts small-town rural Southern life history, using dialogue and settings characteristic of the South (Hunt).However, southern history and all it represents seems irrelevant to her characters lives (Fine 87). Bobbie Ann Mason occasionally reveals her talent and wit by being able to focus more on her characters and their se nse of isolation and their want for something more from their lives and draw the reader towards the characters and yield them empathize with the characters. These characters are not simply depicted as typical Southerners, but rather as people who are trying desperately to get into the society rather than out of it (Reed 60).Mason shows the Southern Influence by creating believable characters that are caught in the transition between the old, pastoral, rural world of farms and close communities and the advance(a), anonymous, suburban world of shopping malls and fast-food restaurants (Shiloh Themes). In Shiloh, for example, Leroy did not notice the change in his hometown while he was on the road as a trucker. However, now that Leroy has come home to stay, he notices how much the town has changed. Subdivisions are spreading across western Kentucky like an oil slick. Change, a theme often used by Mason in her works, shows just how much Mason is influenced by her upbringing and likew ise reveals how she laments over how people are slow to realize the changes in southern society. In this story, it takes a traumatic event of some kind to make the characters see that the land has changed or that they no longer know who they are. In Leroys case, it is his accident and injury in his rig that make him see that the land has changed, that Norma dungaree has changed, and that in all the years he was on the road he never took time to examine anything.He was always flying past scenery (2). Several of Masons characters react to the changes in their lives by trying, at least momentarily, to go back. Leroy thinks that he can hold onto his wife if he can go back to a simpler time. He decides to accomplish this by building her a log cabin for which he goes so far as to order the blueprints and to build a miniature out of Lincoln Logs. Mabel, Leroys mother-in-law, is convinced that if Leroy and Norma Jean will go to Shiloh where she and her husband went on their honeymoon, they can somehow begin their fifteen-year-old brotherhood anew.So does Leroy. He says to Norma, You and me could first gear all over again. Right back at the beginning (15). It is ironic, fitting, and symbolic that it is at Shiloh that Norma tells him she wants to feed him. By storys end, Leroy knows that he cannot go back as it occurs to him that building a house of logs is . . . empty too simple. . . . Now he sees that building a log house is the dumbest idea he could energize had. . . . It was a crazy idea (16). He realizes that the real inner workings of a marriage, like most of history, have escaped him (16).The womanish characters that Mason brings to life are what set her stories apart from the usual literature which depicts Southern women their dreams, goals, and their want for progress significantly differs from those of the traditional Southern belle characters such as Scarlett OHara and Adie (Hunt). The female characters of Mason embrace change and are not afraid of it (Kincaid 582). This seemingly feminist theme reflects the change in social relationships between men and women how evolving and rapidly shifting gender roles affect the lives of simple people.Mason also shows how some of her women try to forge new identities in the wake of shifting gender roles and how their efforts often accept a blatant shrinking of traditionally feminine behaviors or characteristics sometimes they seem almost alone to be trading roles with the men in their lives. And since change often causes uncertainty and instability, another aspect is the way these women find some solid ground through connections with other women (Bucher). Shiloh is a story that symbolizes the modern woman striving to find her identity (Cooke 196).In this short story, Bobbie Ann Mason masterfully portrays the lead female character, Norma Jean, as one such woman strong, determined and confused in a search for her identity. Mason is able to show this to the reader through the acts of Norma Je an as she tries to improve her physical appearance by working on her pectorals (Mason 271), enrolls in a variety of classes, from weightlifting to cooking exotic foods to English opus in an attempt to become a new woman (Thompson 3). These actions of Norma Jean actions reveal more of a strong desire for inner personal transformation, much more than anything else.However, Mason also recognizes that abrupt change in ones personality has its own dangers (Hunt), as illustrated by Norma Jean and Leroys relationship. Norma Jean and Leroys relationship is a perfect example of the dangers of an abrupt change as it shows a marriage with serious problem and the effect that change has on it. Leroy and Norma Jean Moffitt, are working-class people living in the modern South, and thus they bring into their marriage all sorts of unspoken expectations of who they should be, which often contrast violently with who they are even more so with who they are becoming (Bucher).When in a twist of fate, L eroy loses the use of his leg, Norma Jean suddenly assumes the role of being the man in the family and this leads to problems. It is this sort of change that is not except abrupt but also drastic which Mason shows in Shiloh that reveals her Southern influence. She emphasizes the changing role of women in society by using the Southern setting as a backdrop. Mason is a lover of rock and roll music. This passion and preference for rock music and pop culture are frequently reflected throughout her stories as well (Webber).Writing is my version of rock-and-roll, Rothstein quotes her (Webber). This is aptly shown in Shiloh, where the main characters themselves are named after Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe, popular icons of the rock and roll scene and pop culture in the aboriginal 1950s. All in all, it can be said that Bobbie Ann Masons personal background shows a very consistent influence in the fiction stories that she writes and provides a deeper and different perspective about liv ing in a Southern setting and rural life in general.In the country in Kentucky, people are just amazed that anybody in New York wants to read about their lives (Rothstein). With fiction stories of Bobbie Ann Mason, however, it is not surprising that people will want to read more about Kentucky or the Southern locales of the unite States, for that matter, for her stories speak of the universal human experiences that transcend physical and cultural boundaries which people can identify with. industrial plant CITEDArnold, Edwin J. Falling Apart and Staying Together. Appalachian Journal (1985) 135-141Aycock-Simpson, Judy. Bobbie Ann Masons Portrayal of Modern Western Kentucky allowance States Journal of the Kentucky-Tennessee American Studies Association, No. 7 (1989) Bobbie Ann Mason. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. August 30, 2006. November 11, 2006 http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bobbie_Ann_Mason Bobbie Ann Mason. Bobbie Ann Masons Homepage. September 17, 2005. November 24, 2006 http/ /www. eiu. edu/eng1002/authors/mason2/bio. htm Shiloh Themes. Short Stories for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol. 3. Detroit Gale, 1998. eNotes.com. January 2006. 24 November 2006. http//www. enotes. com/shiloh/32686 Bucher, Tina. Changing Roles and Finding Stability Women in Bobbie Ann Masons Shiloh and Other Stories Border States Journal of the Kentucky-Tennessee American Studies Association, No. 8 (1991) Cooke, Stewart J. Masons Shiloh. The Explicator 51 (1993) 196-197. Fine, Laura. Going nowhere Slow The Post-South World of Bobbie Ann Mason. The Southern Literary Journal 32 (1999). Hunt, Kristina. Masons Transformation of the South. October 27, 2000. November 11, 2006.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
The Role of military man Activities in Causing mood Change EssayTo begin with, mood change is a tangible conundrum and its existence crapper no longer be denied. It would be self-deception to believe that military personnels had nothing to do with it. Human activities along with natural deviates continuously alter the humour of the Earth. However, the fact that near-surface temperature has rapidly increased on the spherical scale in the past fewer decades can hardly be accounted for by natural processes. In reality global warming is to a great extent caused by charitable activity, which has been proven by extensive scientific interrogation (UN Environment course). By burning coal, natural gas and oil, introducing harmful agrarian practices and destroying forests people make a significant negative impact on the state of the atmosphere, altering its physical composition irreparably. Reckless and irrational human activities caused the increase in the denseness of the so- called greenhouse gases, such as methane, snow dioxide, ozone, chlorofluoro degree Celsiuss and nitrous oxide, in the atmosphere (AGU Statement).Nowadays, the humanity fully depends on the energy provided by fogey fuels, such as oil, natural gas and coal. This energy feeds the industries, the transportation, generates electricity. However, obsequious use of fossil fuel leads to stiff waiver of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Agricultural needs condition changes in the landscape, deforestation, which in its turn leads to more carbon dioxide being emitted, as dead vegetation is never replaced by new growth that would counteract the emission. presently deforestation is mostly characteristic of the tropical regions whereas re-growth in the northern hemisphere decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (UN Environment Program).There is reliable evidence of the fact that carbon dioxide buildup is due to human influences. course emitted carbon dioxide differs in the nuclei structure from that produced by burning natural gas, oil and coal. Moreover, non-radioactive carbon dioxide emitted as a result of burning fossil fuels dilutes radioactive carbon dioxide naturally present in the atmosphere. Scientific research clearly shows that total carbon dioxide emission has increased steadily each year and is in work out relation with the human activities.The fact that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is greater in the northern hemisphere can serve as evidence of it being human-induced, as most of the activities involving carbon dioxide emission ar conducted in the Northern hemisphere. The fact that a certain amount of carbon dioxide has been added into the atmosphere all(prenominal) year has led to its present concentration, which exceeds pre-industrial level by 30% (AGU Climate Change Position).Besides carbon dioxide, human activities lead to the emission of another greenhouse gas methane. Its emission results from cattle ranc hing, rice refining and decay in the landfills. An alarming 145% increase of methane content in the atmosphere was caused by human activities. The emission of chlorofluorocarbons used to be triggered by disperse conditioning and refrigeration, but since it was proved that these gases deplete the ozone work of the stratosphere, their usage was nearly eliminated. Industrial and agricultural activities lead to the production of nitrous oxide, the concentration of which is currently 15% over the norm. Tropospheric ozone, formed naturally as a reaction to the greenhouse gas emissions, enhances the greenhouse subject dramatically (BBC News).The abovementioned human activities are extremely detrimental to the atmosphere as they create a great deal of tiny airborne particles, which change the energy absorbing and reflecting properties of the atmosphere. Unfortunately, according to the scientific research the increased concentration of carbon dioxide is likely to stay in the atmosphere for many years or even centuries. Human-induced modality change is reality and the predictions of the scientists are such that it will produce a substantial impact on the modality system, being reflected in the melting of polar ice, changing of the sea levels as well as drought patterns (UN Environment Program). Anthropogenic interference seems to have reached unprecedented extent in the past few decades.According to AGU, the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere enhanced by negative influence of other human activities presents serious grounds for concern (AGU Statement). The positive tendency nowadays is such that climate scientists possess deeper knowledge of the climate system, which allows to take more effective climate policy decisions. Profound climate research, objective observations, improved modeling and computation have led to tangible progress in addressing the problem of climate change. The communication of scientific discoveries to organizatio ns authorized to make decisions regarding climate change and their wise implementation are sure to decrease the adverse effects of human-induced disaster.In conclusion, theres no denying the fact that climate change is largely due to human influences. The following human activities have contributed greatly to the alternation of the climate air pollution, usage of fossil fuels and land alteration. However, now that the problem is obvious and so is its detrimental effect on the humanity, various measures are taken in order to decrease negative impact produced on genius and alleviate its harmful consequences. It is within the human powers to mitigate the climate change effects by clipping emissions of greenhouse gases, introducing rational land management and environmentally friendly technology.Works CitedHow Do We Know that the atmospherical Build-up of Greenhouse Gases Is Due to Human Activity? Common Questions active Climate Change. United Nations Environment Program World Meteor ological Organization, 1997 http//www.gcrio.org/ipcc/qa/05.htmlHuman Impacts on Climate. Adopted by Council December, 2003 http//www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.htmlStatement supporting AGU relation on human-induced climate change, American Astronomical Society, 2004 http//www.aas.org/governance/council/resolutions.phpclimateWarming very likely human made. BBC News, BBC, 2007 http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6321351.stmWhat Human Activities Contribute to Climate Change? Common Questions about Climate Change. United Nations Environment Program World Meteorological Organization, 1997 http//www.gcrio.org/ipcc/qa/04.html
Saturday, April 13, 2019
International demonstrate waites EssayIt is recognized that it is paramount to the U. S. to protect and go forward the integrity of its trammels. This involves a constant balancing by the authorities between trade and commerce on one hand and terrorist activities, contraband and illegal immigrants on the other hand. By reason of this, security trading operations involve border facees and seizures which necessarily have implications on the Fourth Amendment (Vina, 2005).The Fourth Amendment ensures and protects the people from un conceivable searches and seizures and provides, The decent of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, scarcely upon verisimilar cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized (U. S. Constitution, Fourth Amendment). The Fourth Amendment i s to ensure that the powers of the federal government are not arbitrarily used against its citizens.Legally, attainment is required as one to be determined by a judge for the issuance of a search warrant. The judge is said to be independent and impartial as to determine the existence of probable cause so that the police can make the search or arrest Katz v. U. S. , 347, 357 (1967). A irreverence of the Fourth Amendment will result in the exclusion or suppression of whatever evidence may be gathered pursuant to the exclusionary rule enunciated by the Court in the case of Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U. S. 643 (1961). in that location are however, exceptions open up when reasonableness and warrant requirement are relaxed and therefore probable cause is not ever required either (Vernonia School Dist. 47J v. Acton, 515 U. S. 646, 653 (1995). This occurs when the interests of the public require more protection than those of private interests. One of these established exceptions to the warrant and probable cause requirement is border search Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U. S. 523 (1967). Discussion Border search is defined in the case of joined States v.Ramsey as that searches made at the border, pursuant to the longstanding flop of the sovereign to protect itself by stopping and examining persons and property crossing into this country, are reasonable simply by virtue of the fact that they occur at the border, should, by now, require no extended demonstration (431 U. S. 606 (1977)). This does not require a warrant, probable cause or reasonable uncertainty (Onecle web site, 2005). The exception of border search is provided for below the coupled States Code specifically in Chapter 19, subsections 482 and 1582.This exception is premised on the duty of the invoke to protect its citizens, regulate trade and commerce and enforces immigration laws, thus, authorizing routine stops for searches at the border U. S. v. Ramsey, 431 U. S. 606 (1977). There are two types of bor der search, namely routine and non-routine (Vina, 2005). In the case of U. S. v. Johnson, the Court explained that routine search include a search without any suspicion and entails very limited invasion of privacy (991 F 2d. 1287, 1291 7th Cir. 1993). This may include a dog sniff of the person, a search and inspection of belongings, baggage and car (Vina, 2005).The non-routine search includes more intrusive methods and is organizeed when the authorities have suspicion that there is alimentary furnish smuggling. The search may consist of destructive searches of inanimate objects, prolonged detentions, strip searches, body cavity searches, and few x-ray examinations (Vina, 2005). Body cavity searches include searches in cavities such as vagina, rectum, or the use of emetics Vina, 2005 citing United States v. Ogberaha, 771 F. 2d 655, 657 (2d Cir. 1985) (vagina) United State v. Pino, 729 F. 2d 1357, 1358 (11 th Cir. 1984) (rectum) United States v. Briones, 423 F.2d 742, 743 (5 th Cir . 1970) (emetics). The law requires that reasonable suspicion consists in particular and specific facts which a logical person can infer from a wrong doing (U. S. v. Montoya de Hernandez (1985), 473 U. S. 531).There are also instances when border searches are allowed to extend beyond the border, in the sideline cases, namely (1) the government officials have reasonable certainty or a high degree of prospect that a border was crossed (2) they also have reasonable certainty that no change in the object of the search has occurred between the time of the border crossing and the search and (3) they have reasonable suspicion that criminal activity was occurring (U. S. v. Teng Yang (2002), 286 F. 3d. 940).These three requisites must exist and concur to render legal and constitutional, the extended border search by ensuring a significant nexus with a border crossing by the leery (Vina, 2005). Most often the routine searches give rise to non-routine searches such as for instance where und eclared unprecedented stones are found inside the pocket of the suspect, this resulted into reasonable suspicion thus giving rise to the conduct of non-routine search of strip searches.This yielded an envelope of narcotics (U. S. v. Flores, (1973) 477 F. 2d 608). Conclusion The U. S. government embarked on enhancing border security technologies and operations by reason of the September 11 terrorist attack. Intercepting and aborting terrorist attacks and smuggling of contraband were overstressed. Pieces of legislation are being drafted to predominate further training in detection of false or falsified documents, pilot programs are launched for surveillance technologies, biometric accounting entry and exit data system and enhanced training of border officials (Vina, 2005).Volunteer programs were also set up to assist in observing and reporting of the movement of illegal aliens such as those launched in azimuth in 2005. This is a citizens neighborhood watch program called the Minut eman Project. References Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U. S. 523 (1967) Katz v. U. S. , 347, 357 (1967) Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U. S. 643 (1961).Onecle Web site 2005 Border searches Retrieved on October 25, 2007, from http//law. onecle. com/constitution/amendment-04/18-border-searches. html United States Code, Chapter 19, subsections 482 and 1582 U. S. Constitution, Fourth Amendment Vernonia School Dist. 47J v. Acton, 515 U. S.646, 653 (1995). Vina, S. 2005, Protecting our perimeter border searches under the Fourth amendment CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved on October 25, 2007, from http//www. fas. org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL31826. pdf. United States v. Briones, 423 F. 2d 742, 743 (5 th Cir. 1970) U. S. v. Flores, (1973) 477 F. 2d 608). U. S. v. Johnson, 991 F 2d. 1287, 1291 7th Cir. 1993). U. S. v. Montoya de Hernandez (1985), 473 U. S. 531 United States v. Ogberaha, 771 F. 2d 655, 657 (2d Cir. 1985) (vagina) United States v. Pino, 729 F. 2d 1357, 1358 (11 th Cir. 1984) (rectum) U. S. v. Ramsey, 431 U. S. 606 (1977). U. S. v. Teng Yang (2002), 286 F. 3d. 940.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
Critique Vanities moveWritten by an American, Jack Heifner Vanities is a story relating to terzetto young girls from a little township c onlyed Texas. The lives of these collar girls take a sharp turn in puzzling ways after a deeply intense period at schoolhouse where they would spend good time flinging themselves into the air and do noises. The girls enjoyed their happy times and shared together but after going away from atomic number 53 a nonher, they forgot everything and one after another started their own means of survival. According to the playwright it seems that cheerleaders who are worshipped and envied in nobleschool school do not grow up and live charmed lives in their later years.The playwright begins by mentioning his three characters namely Lauren Kennedy, Sarah Stiles and Anneliese van der Pol who acted as cheerleaders sometimes back when they were in high school and college. solely the three beautiful girls shown in this pleasant but forget display bo ard play must weather the wedge and trouble after putting away their pullovers and saddle shoes. The play begins in a conventional and incon ensuant manner however, it comes in a series of oral plays that are arranged in a sequential order.In the beginning of the play, the three characters are revealed as having a happy life in high school, socializing with one another and even sharing their happy times together. Kathy, who is living in the apartment, plans and organizes a get-together companionship for the three and though the playwright does not mention the reason behind the holding of the get-together fellowship it is true that the party was meant to commemorate the happy times and sorrowful times that they had been sharing together. Joanne, to whom life seemed to be facilitate an active convention, is now getting out of shape with time.She is a pretty girl and one who does not care much about the future. Kate Guyton in addition displays the same characters. Kate Guyton is later engaged in a marriage relationship with Ted who is revealed as the plays most lively and puzzling characters but does not show herself. Mary as acted by Regan Thompson changes from a sex maniac young girl to a professional marketer of the same trade. She has an art gallery that deals with erotic art despite being unite and one of her best customers is none other than the wandering Ted with whom she has an affair.The girls do not seem to learn anything in school. Mary wishes to be a nurse or a psychologist. Kathy does not want to be anything whereas Joanne goes on being a virgin. Ted is arguably the most active and strange character in this play, though he does not take an active role. When Anneliese van der Pol, who is a cheerleader tried to attract her friends attention to bow to the get-together party every thing does not go smoothly since the boys and other social issues keep getting in the way and as result, Anneliese van der Pols confidence on the success of the get-toge ther party is rendered hopeless.However, she tries with all her effort to get back to her friends Joanne and Mary. Due to this situation, the playwright uses Kirshenbaums music to debate the kind of plight she was undergoing. The young women appear to be in confused states of mind than there before and do not even show the character of leadership despite having been cheerleaders before. Joanne plans a wedding with her former high school sweetheart but at the same time, Mary also plans to travel to Europe in summer.Kathy still doubts the fact that her former friend and schoolmate eat married a woman who is already. As a result of this she gets disappointed with men. Mary then comes in to console her friend from her disappointment. This clearly displays the obvious heavy relationship of the three girls in this reunion party. The character of cheerleading learned at high school seems to have ended there. It did not go beyond the school gate. At the time the play goes to New York Ci ty, the three actresses had been completely changed in their characters from which they had when they were together.Mary who is a prostitute gets angry of her friend Joanne because of her decision to become a housewife and a mother. This problem disturbs Joanne but later reveals it when she gets drunk. The trio-actresses have strong and appealing voices. However, Ms Kennedy looks discerning because she has to smoke every time. Or could she be experiencing a difficulty in relating with the others? Probably as they also do not get out of the arena during the short break and they sit at the table of vanity to have time to adjust their makeup.After watching the play I was amazed by the playwrights theme of misguided values as shown by the transformation of the characters of the three girls. They experienced overexcitement in high school, life of uncertainty in college and sadness in their final reunion. But is life that vain as the writer tries to show? I dont think so but it might ref lect these trends if the values that one calculates are against the norms or misplaced as the characters reveal.Works citedHeifner Jack Vanities 1963
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Individual Management Planning EssayImagine you ar an executive for BP, and you are preparing a presentation for the board of directors about the faces direction. Create a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, with speaker notes, in which you address the following Evaluate the planning function of management as it relates to the organizations goals and strategies. Use steps in the planning process outlined in the text. Analyze the exploit that legal issues, ethics, and corporate social responsibility have had on management planning at BP. tender at least one example for each. Analyze at least three factors that influence the companys strategic, tactical, operational, and hap planning. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Monday, April 8, 2019
The Transformation of Jeff Henderson EssayThe Transformation of Jeff Henderson In life, a Fall means that someone loses his position or becomes unsuccessful depending on economy, family discord, or crime. You can non rise if you do not fall first. In the autobiography Cooked, Jeff Henderson undergoes his own Fall into the abyss of insanity and a repurchase born from necessity. The rising/falling motif of the life lessons can be explained by narcissism, solipsism, denial and rationalization. Cooked by Jeff Henderson is a memoir of crime, redemption and a desire to make it big. Jeff Hendersons narcissism had grown wee by little and the position of solipsism on his mind was higher and higher while he got money, redden when he was a child. As a child, he could not satisfy his desire for food, buying exquisitely clothes, and have enough money because of his economic circumstance. Through spending time with his brothers on the street, he began losing his righteous compass. For exam ple, he usually pinched twenty dollars from his mother when he had the opportunity. Jeff Henderson thought, Im going to hire mine. After that, he thought he is better and smarter than he is.His narcissism was increasing. So he did not pick up his amazing cooking skill at this point. Besides that, he had a virtuous denial when one of Jeff Hendersons associates was trying to kidnap and kill him. As Professor McMahon stated, Henderson rationalizes that he is a drug dealer but he does as, strictly as a businessman. (Break Through. Web) He justified that he had never used drugs and had never done any violence although he was caught by the Feds. He believed that he is different from others who dealt with drugs as well.Then, He learned his cooking skills in prison, where he served time for cooking up a very different kind of substanceselling cocaine. After he got released his attitude to cypher hard brought him a transformation to be successful. Now, he is an executive chef in Bellagi o. His jail period do him flourish and be successful. Works Cited Herculodge. Lesson 4 In the Crossfire Welcome to the Third Eye. Break Through Writer. October 05, 2011 lt http//herculodge. typepad. com/breakthrough_writer/2011/10/lesson-4-in-the-crossfire. htmlgt
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Montessori Senstive Periods EssayDefine the term reasonable periods, and pardon how the teachers noesis and mind of these periods determines his / her preparation and custodianship of the prepargond environs A thorough taking into custody and knowledge of the sensitive periods (Montessori, 1972) that a kid passes through with(predicate) is tout ensemble-important(a) in aiding the teacher to provide a slipable environment to assist a kids optimum suppuration as the environment that the nipper is in plays a crucial role to their formation according to Montessori. A sensitive period refers to a special sensibility which a creature acquires in its infantile state (Montessori, 1966, knave 38). Such sensitive periods were first discovered in insects by the Dutch scientist Hugo de Vries. Montessori stated that sensitive periods stub also be found in peasantren and ar very important for a teacher to consider to aid optimum victimisation through providing the counters ink type of environment. Therefore to fully understand the sensitive periods, an understanding of Montessoris periods of growth (Montessori, 2007) that she devised from feature to maturity is needed. These depict the progress of a kids mental development, which correspond with phases of physical growth.Montessoris periods of growth consist of phase unmatchable birth to six old age, phase two six to cardinal years, phase one-third twelve to eighteen years and phase four eighteen to twenty-four years. Within each stage the child has different characteristics and needs, whence requiring an alternative suitable environment for optimum development to occur, as each stage lays the foundations for the child to draw out to develop within the next stage, with the first stage being fundamental (www. casadimir. org). Stage one is bout into two sub-phases, comprising of birth to age three and three to age six.During this first stage the child has an sorbefacient mind (Montessori, 200 7). The unconscious receptive mind from birth to three years old, which is described as a mind that is constantly absorbing impressions from the environment and yet does this without knowing that it is doing so, and without willing it (Standing, 1998, page 109). The conscious absorbent mind from three to six years continues to build on the faculties that developed during the phase of the unconscious mind. However, instead of soaking in the environment unconsciously it is the childs own ego which guides and directs him (Standing, 1998, age 112). This stage is critical for the foundations of an all round well developed child both mentally and physically. Stage two, from six to twelve years, is a stable periodwith noticeable physical and mental changes. The absorbent mind is replaced with reasoning and logical thinking the child continues to develop and build upon his development from stage one. Stage three, twelve to eighteen years, is split into two sub-phases comprising of twelve to fifteen years, the stage of puberty and fifteen to eighteen years, the stage of adolescence.This period is a very cranky and an emotional meter for the child. Stage four, eighteen to twenty four years, the beginnings of adulthood this time is usually very stable. Montessori identified six main sensitive periods, consisting of a period of sensitivity to order, to language, for refinement of the senses, for walking and movement, for pure objects and to the social sides of life, all of which are present during the first stage of growth the absorbent mind. Theses sensitive periods are not consecutive some are continuous and some overlap, which will now be looked at in greater depth.The period of sensitivity to order is one of the first sensitive periods to been seen in the development of a child and usually appears within the childs first calendar month. Throughout this sensitive period the child requires a precise, ordered environment, which can be observed by the joy which chil dren show at seeing things in their correct places (Montessori, 1972). The presence of this sensitive period however, is even more evident when the order is somehow interfered with.For example, in the Secret of puerility (1972), Montessori describes the agitation of a 6 month old child when a sunblind was placed upon the table by a charwoman entering the room the child immediately began to cry. The woman automatically presumed that the child wished to play with the parasol, this brought on further frustration causing the little girl to touch on the parasol away when it was given to her. Her mother suddenly rattlingised and when the parasol was removed from the room it was tho then that the child became calm again.In Montessoris words the object out of place had violently pass on the little girls pattern of memory as to how objects should be arranged (Montessori, 1972, page 50), thus causing the child distress demonstrating the need for a precise environment. Another example il lustrated by Montessori in the Secret of Childhood (1972), was when she was on a guided tour through the tunnel of the Grottoof Nero in Naples, when a mother carrying a little boy took her coat off and threw it over her arm while she continued to carry the child. The child once again became agitated and continuously cried.Various approaches were used to try and sooth the child, all of which were unsuccessful, until Montessorisuggested that the mother should consecrate her coat on. Following this action the childs tears disappeared and he continuously said Coat shoulder (Montessori, 1972, page 51), the child once again smiled as he felt that his mother had eventually understood him. With these examples and the knowledge of the childs sensitivity to order it demonstrates the need for the teacher to ensure a well ordered environment that is sure to the child, while allowing sufficient freedom and time for the child to explore ontheir own.The period of sensitivity for language occurs amid birth and approximately five years old. During this time the child masters basic sentence patterns in their nativelanguage and goes on to develop more complex sentences during the next stage of growth. From the moment the child is born, without lessons and without conscious lawsuit he learns to pronounce the language he hears around him with perfection (Standing, 1998, page 121), simply by listening to the languagewords spoken slowly and clearly. The child listens voluntarily then goes on to utter run shorts, experiencing vibrations and evolution his vocal muscles.Montessori (1972) stated that the childs sensitive period for language tends to pass unnoticed, as the environment he is in, surrounded by adults speech provides the necessary requirements for his development. This sensitive period is only acknowledged when the child demonstrates their joy through smiles and bodily movements, when tuned into the sounds of language. The period of sensitivity for the refinement o f the senses, begins approximately when a child begins to crawl and can sincerely manipulate and experience his environment, this continues generally until the age of eight.Through guided teaching using the correct poppycock in an appropriate environment and practice, the childs senses can be refined so that the child can sort between minimaldifferences. Using the colour box to distinguish between gradients of colours or grading the sound cylinders is a good example of this. The period of sensitivity for walking and movement, occurs approximately at the age of one when the child first begins to walk. Although they walk slowly and with no real rhythmic step or goal, the child can walk for long periods of time covering great distances, showing thorough enjoyment during their travels (Lillard, 1972).This allows time for a child to explore the outside world with the freedom of a suitable large space, meliorate his physical coordination and fulfilling his desire to absorb his surroun dings. The period of sensitivity for small objects becomes apparent when the child becomes mobile at around the age of one and has a larger, open environment to explore. The child is drawn towards small objects much(prenominal) as pebbles and tiny insects. This is demonstrated through an example from Montessori (1972) in the Secret of Childhood, when a fifteen month old child sitting on the paving outside suddenly burst into laughter.The adult proverb nothing until a small insect was pointed out by the by the child it is as though the child looks for items that are invisible to adults. The period of sensitivity for social aspects of life occurs at around three years of age when the child begins to realise that they are partof a group. The childs social interest is exhibited first as an observing activity, and later develops into a desire for more active contact with others (Lillard, 1972, page 36).Therefore, with providing an environment where a child is free to observe, experimen t and explore amongst their peers without intervention, apart from when antisocial behaviour is presented, a child by nature forms correct social behaviour and a willingness to help others. The teacher needs a concrete understanding of the sensitive periods to be able to provide a suitable environment for a child to develop. A prepared suitable environment for example includes, clearly ordered, organised and readily available materials, child-sized furniture, low shelves and real life objects.Along with the freedom to explore and move around freely, these aspects all take the needs of the child into consideration, although observation of the childs abilities and interests by the teacher is equally as important for the teacher to make required adjustments to suit the childs needs at certain points in their development and particular sensitivities. It is important to support the requirements of the sensitive periods as once this period passes the child will no longer achieve his opti mum development with this aspect of his inner self with ease.Also if a sensitive period is neglected it may hinder the development with other aspects of the childs development. In Montessoris words, If he passes through a period sensitive to order, the disorder he perceives can be an obstacle to his development and a cause of abnormalities (Montessori, 1972, page 49). Therefore a thorough understanding of a childs periods of growth and sensitive periods as well as exceptional observational skills is essential for a teacher to establish a desired environment to provide the opportunities for the sensitive periods to flourish.Bibliography Lillard, P (1972), Montessori A recent Approach, Schocken books, New York Montessori, M (1972) The Secret of Childhood, Ballentine, New York Montessori, M (2007) The Absorbent Mind, Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, Amsterdam Standing, E. M (1998) female horse Montessori Her Life and Work, First Plume Printing, America www. casadimir. org Casa di Mir Montessori School (undated). Montessori Philosophy http//www. casadimir. org/montessoriphilosophy. htm
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Applying system Essay vigorous aging is positively corre late(a)d with touch ond psychological and social participation of senior citizens with activities that may non be very similar to those that they have been used to, precisely substitutes them to accommodate their age and limited capabilities. building a senior citizens nucleus would allow them to participate in modified activities that they have chased in middle age. The community would be creating a venue by which the hoary could get educational training, physical and leisure activities suited to their age to reduce boredom. The midpoint would encourage them to stay active, less dispirit about aging. In the ample-term, the center would promote a positive well-being among the ancient. Exchange Theory construct a senior citizens center would benefit the senior citizens in many ways but on the part of the community, the project would have benefits as well as incur costs. A center would provide senior citizens a pr oductive recollects by which to spend their retirement years. It would make them much active and social than they would if they just spend most of their time at home or a retirement home.On the part of the community, the monetary cost of the project might make it impractical if the tot up could be better spent in a much more needed community project. hence again, the olden is as much a part of the community as much as the younger members and constructing a center would provide a psychological benefit for both age groups. To the olden, a center is a reassurance that the community values them in spite their experient age. To the younger generation, the center equally reassures them that they atomic number 18 doing something right for the hoary.Functionalism Every age group needs to belong to an institution which would foster a smell of their membership in the larger community. Furthermore, to survive as a whole, all members should work together and trickiness into roles a imed towards fulfilling the needs of society. A senior citizens center would make the retirees a sense of belonging in the community as it would serve as their institution now that they have lost membership in their former workplaces. They would form into a social group which could organize activities to benefit the entire community.It would make the glueyness of the community stronger as an organized group of senior citizens means that even the elderly are add towards the stability and constant activity of the community, factors which characterize a healthy, working community. Continuity Theory Senior citizens would continue to seek for the same activities, relationships and lifestyles they had in younger years. A senior citizens center would be a good way by which the elderly members of society can organize, assemble and socializejust equivalent when they were younger.Since they all belong to the same age group, members would develop a distinct culture and this would give every one a sense of stability and support system. A center with activities and programs geared for the elderly would help ease the difficulties of adjusting to old age. The community, in turn, would have less of the stereotyped bitter and bad-tempered elderly members because it has a place which helps the elderly experience aging as a positive, supportive and gently-sloping experience.Theories that would argue against the senior citizens center. Conflict Theory Building a senior citizens center would benefit the elderly, however it would acknowledge their continued worthy in society and their influence in terms of policy-making. The senior citizens have passed their prime, and the younger generation controls earth administration including the budget and planning. The latter would disapprove the spending of $3M for a center that would not be paid to the community.The community could maximize its spending by allocating the budget for other(a) projects and simply put the care of the eld erly under their respective families or elderly homes. This way the family or home would be spending moreover for the necessary expenses to support the survival needs of the elderly without funneling the communitys financial resources. Political preservation of aging The corporate interest precedes personal interest of the market. A senior citizens center would sure as shooting not justify the $3M that the community would be spending towards constructing and running it.A center for the elderly would simply be a place for them to engage in pursuits like physical activities, entertainment, seminars conducted by volunteers and other non-profitable, self-serving endeavors. If the aim is to spend the money in a project that would benefit the aging population, a wiser vagary would be to revert the funds towards the construction of a managed care institution. To be profitable in the long run, this institution could give the elderly the same services and activities as the proposed cente r, but at certain prices. recreation for the elderly should be a privilege instead of a charitable act. Disengagement theory The elderly and society engage in mutual separation. A senior citizens center is impractical because it would mean integrating the elderly into the community when they should realize that they have to withdraw from social activities they have been used to front to retirement. A center would give the elderly a false sense of importance regarding their role in the community.It would pose a burden to the community which has to constantly bear with the expenses incurred by the center and its useless programs. The elderly cannot anymore contribute to society and compete with its standards of excellence therefore, for the benefit of society, they should interact with the community and with each other less. Social Competence/Breakdown Theory Building a senior citizens center would bring in greater dependency on the part of the already vulnerable senior citizens.If the center is realized the elderly would feel self-important, ask for extra services and special privileges. If the demands are refused, it would cause emotional distress. To show sensibility to the elderly, they should be allowed to face the challenges in life, without spending $3M to build a center especially for them. They should not be doled out with charity. They should be left to find the means to be happy and productive in their late years. The community would be doing them well if they are made to feel like they have worked hard to run something.
Story of an hour Essay?Prompt admit The Story of an Hour carefully. Examine the protagonists attitude about the devastation of her husband. How is this attitude displayed and how does it precede to the meaning of the story? Authors reveal characters attitudes through different literary devices. In The Story of an Hour, the precedent Kate Chopin, uses irony to reveal Mrs. mallards attitude toward her new husbands death. Chopin first describes in the story how a typical woman might respond to her husbands death. She did not attend the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. around women would have been in shock and not want to accept the fact that their husband had indeed passed away. However, Mrs. Mallard had a rather ironic reaction. She wept suddenly and wanted to be alone. This revealed she was not like most women and had a rather peculiar view about her husbands death. As the reader continues, they discover to a g reater extent irony into Mrs. Mallards attitude. After she has retreated to a room to isolate herself from the others, she sits in a chair facing a window and whispers to herself, Free, free, free No widow would whisper that only proceedings after their husbands death, if ever at all. Though she knows her husband had loved her, and she had loved him, she had felt trapped at bottom their marriage. Now recognizing she has regained her freedom, her sense of entrapment diminishes. The irony continues as the reader learns Mrs. Mallards husband had not in truth died. Not only is the reader in shock, but so is Mrs. Mallard. So shocked in fact, that she dies at her husbands arrival. When the doctor came they said she had died of a heart disease of joy that kills. Mrs.Mallard had rattling died because for one hour she actually got to live with true freedom. Most women would be overwhelmed with joy that their husband was alive, where as Mrs. Mallard has more of an ironic reaction. She h ad realized at the sight of her husband that her glimpse of freedom and joy was over, and she could not go back to living under her husbands will. Her final attitude towards the death of Mr. Mallard is revealed, Mrs. Mallard was happier as a widow. Kate Chopin uses irony as a literary device to reveal her character, Mrs. Mallards attitude towards her husbands death.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Difference in leading Styles with start-off innate(p)(p) ChildrenThese children would want to chance on a lot. They set high standards and they be perfectionists. It is also stated that they contract on achieving the goals in the educational and occupational settings. The transformational leaders argon end slightly driven to come across the goals set. They atomic number 18 also concerned with helping separates solve their problems. They atomic number 18 motivated. They fall in a vision and they accentuate had to achieve it. They encourage opposites to achieve and sate the goals of the organization. The outset innate(p) children tilt to be hard operative. They possess swaggering characteristics. They want to fulfil the expectations of the family. They argon answerable. They be set to achieve their goal. They set to the rules as they need to fulfil the expectations by the pargonnt. Since they act in the same way their parents they tend to inspire others. They h ave qualities of others as they have grown up with the parents around and tend to pick those up. Hence, based on the to a higher place descriptions it was deduced that the single children and freshman natural tend to have close to a lot the same characteristics.Many researchers have concluded that notwithstanding-children and first-innate(p)s, irrespective of gender, appear to be academic achievers as compared to later natural(p) children (Coleston, 2008).Thus, the surmise that There will be no signifi enduret difference in the midst of solitary(prenominal) children and first off born on Transformational leading manner was formulated.Transactional Leadership StyleTransactional lead course mainly counsellinges this precaution on the role and task and how this is associate to the performance. The transactional lead theory states emphasize on the relationships that are formed between the leader and follower on account of mixed exchanges (Burns, 1978 cited in Wheat ley, 2010). In 1978, according to Hollander he theorised this leadership as to have various(a) dynamic process. These were mainly in relation with the leader and follower and the inter individualized interactions among the two. These leaders were responsible to flip over clear instructions. They would reciprocate with the follower and respond to them appropriately. This in turn increased the leaders turn on them (Hollander, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). These leaders rewarded and gave the following acknowledgement when the expectations or the goals were met. These leaders mainly negotiate and their roles and responsibilities and thither is mutual respect and do work. According to Heifetz in 1994, these leaders influence their followers and they are also to a lower place the followers as it is a reciprocal relationship. According to Burns 2003, leaders who are involved in both the simple and complex situations and they try to achieve the organizational goals (Wheatley, 2010).On ly children never lack companionships. From an previous(predicate) age they are used to playing alone with their toys and non forming relationships much. Their job satisfaction most often depends on their urge to attain perfection. An only child will find a setting where they can work alone rather than in a team (Leman, 2009 cited in Murphy, 2012).The first born children are well organized. They feel they must be perfect in everything that they do. They stick to authority and they follow the rules (Kalkan, 2008 cited in Murphy 2012). First borns are seen as highly motivated and most often apportion prime of the things. First born children generally hold the dominant role over the younger siblings in the family (Tucker and Updegraff, 2010 cited in Murphy, 2012). They often fill high positions of authority in their professions. They set high goals for themselves and they generally would do anything to achieve the goals that they have set (Leman, 2009 cited in Murphy, 2012).Accordi ng to the above literary productions review it has been seen that only children prefer working on their own rather in a team and also try to adjudicate perfection. The transactional leaders share a relationship with their followers and clearly explain the roles. The first borns try hard to seek perfection. They are very motivated and do anything to achieve their goals.Hence, the dead reckoning stating that There will be no significant difference between Only children and First born on Transactional Leadership style was formulated.Laissez faire leadership styleThese leaders generally cause confusion as they are in leadership positions and they are not working or associated with any kind of responsibility. They are inactive. (Bass, 1990 cited in Hartog et al 1997) inform negative correlations on laissez-faire leadership and this in turn results in the performance, effort and attitudes. This is the most impertinent way to lead someone. There is not enough motivation foxn by them . A leadership theory by Kerr and Jermier proposed that subordinate, task, and, organization are the main characteristics. When there is no leader role the subordinates could be empowered to do work and thus this can result in transformational leadership (Hartog et al 1997).Only children are higher on taking inaugural and personal aspiration. They are highly motivated. They focus on educational or occupational achievement much often. These children have stronger individual identities (Mellor, 1989 cited in Collins, 2006).The first born children are often seen as powerful and influential (Murphy, 2012). They operate as being responsible for their family members and in return well-nigh the productiveness of them. When they feel that the productivity has not been attained they feel that they were not technical enough for the job (Hoopes Harper, 1987 Cited in Klas, 2002).According to the above books review it can be seen how only children are seen are very motivating and focused. The laissez faire leadership style is one where there is no leadership role concentraten and they are irresponsible. The first born children are seen as powerful and taking initiative to complete a task.Hence, the hypothesis There will be no significant difference between Only children and First born on the Laissez faire leadership style was formulated.2.2.1 ii Only children and Last born(p)Only children according to Adler will occupy a unique position as they dont have another sibling to maintain do with. The only child generally becomes the focus of attention to the family (Havighurst, 1960 Leman, 1998 Cited in Klas, 2002).They lead their life with dependence and self-centeredness. They gain their familys attention throughout their childhood. Later on in life there is this awakening where they are no longer the focus of attention any much. They never had to compete with others. They usually have difficulty interacting with their peers (Hjelli et al., 1992). Only children do no t have the habit of sharing their things with others this by default comes across as being selfish (Leman 1988, cited in Klas, 2002).The Last born children are considered the most outgoing and secure one in the family. They are generally the least academic ones (Herra, 2003 cited in Collins, 2006). They are looked as the least cap adapted one when compared to their siblings. They are also looked as having less experience in comparison to the other siblings in the family. These children may become discouraged as they are not able to fulfil the expectations set by their older siblings and hence they are considered as failures. These children possess strengths such as caring, outgoing, thoughtful and empathizing which are certain personal skills that the other siblings tend not to possess (Snow et al, 1981 cited in Collins, 2006).Transformational Leadership StyleIn Transformational leadership however, the leader fails to at a lower placestand followers motives and needs. The focus shi fts from the need of the leader to the followers needs. By gaining an understanding of their followers needs, the transformational leader can potentially convert followers into leaders (Chandan et al, 2014).Hence, the hypothesis Only children will be higher on Transformational Leadership style as compared to Last born(p) was formulated.Transactional Leadership StyleAccording to this theory there is an exchange of rewards between the leaders and the followers. Transactional leaders try to motivate their followers through extrinsic rewards. The roots of Transactional leadership theory is grounded in the social reading and social exchange theories, which recognize the equal nature of leadership. Bass and Avolio described contingent reward as that when the leader will give the subordinate once they have achieved goals that were agreed to. Contingent reward is then the exchange of rewards for meeting agreed-on objectives. Transactional leaders can also act by relying on active focus by exception which occurs when the leader monitors followers to ensure mistakes are not made. In passive direction by exception, the leader interferes only when things go wrong (Chandan et al, 2014).Only children are to a greater extent autonomous when it comes to personal control. Only children prefer being around things than people. This has been seen from an early age where they play with toys rather than mixing with others. When the other person who the only child interacts with does not understand what he/she is trying to say they often gain frustrated (Isaacson, 2004 cited in Murphy 2012).Last born generally have a drive for warmth in their live. They strive for different type of success most often to a new enclose way something in which they can excel in and not the same field as their siblings. They are attracted by new ideas and innovations. They havent had much of the valuable experiences at home instead they are seen more sociable as they have opportunities outside t heir homes to develop these social skills (Snow et al, 1981 cited in Collins, 2006).According to the above literary productions review it can be seen that only children prefer working on their own. They do not like when others do not understand them They prefer things over people. The transactional leadership style is where the leader has a reciprocal relationship with the follower. They motivate their followers by giving rewards.Hence, the hypothesis Only children will be significantly lower on Transactional Leadership style as compared to Last borns was formulatedLaissez faire Leadership styleThese leaders allow the group complete freedom in decision making. They never took part in any discussion of any kind. They dint not participate in working towards a goal as well. There were no appraisals also given to their followers.Hence, as it can be seen by the above literature review that the kick the bucket born children are more sociable and they have innovate ideas which they exce l in and especially good social skills. It can be seen since the finale born children would be able to testify their needs and give the rewards to their followers as compared to the only children.The hypothesis that Last born will be higher on Laissez faire leadership style as compared to only born was formulated.2.2.1 iii First Born and Last BornFirst Born generally behave in a more get way as they have interacted with adults broadly. They are hence expected to assume responsibilities. They resent having to serve as the models for their younger siblings. They also have to take care and look after their younger siblings. They generally conform to the wishes of the group they belong to. They generally give in to the wishes and are suggestible as they have always conformed to their parents wishes most often. They have been overprotected and hence there could be a lack of self-asserting behaviour. The generally develop leadership abilities and this happens as since they were smal l they had to assume responsibilities at the house. They are often seen as bossy to others. They are usually really high achievers and sometimes even overachievers and this is due to the parental expectations that make them perform as they need the parents approval for almost everything. They feel replaced by the other sibling and therefore try and achieve a lot of things to gain the approval of their parents. They are disturbed and this stems as they feel really insecure after the other younger sibling has come into their lives (Hurlock, 1981).First born and last born generally occupy different positions in their family. First born constantly documentation rankly themselves in relationship to the other people present around them. They generally tend to be more conscientious, intellectual, and socially dominant than later born. On the other hand, later born children are more agreeable, socially gregarious, and non-conforming. First born were always used to the attention given by t heir parents until the sibling was born, this led to savor of dethronement and they became more dominant. Later born on the other hand were more agreeable and less conscientious as compared to First born (Sulloway, 2001 cited in Roach, 2006).Last born tend to be wilful. They are spoilt by the family and pampered. There wasnt much discipline given to them and the parents were not that strict. They had greater feelings of certificate as there was no displacement for them. They are protected by their parents when the older sibling verbal or physically attack them. This is why they are more dependent and in turn they are irresponsible. They generally underachieve as they do not have much parental demands. They have passing good social relationships outside the house. They tend to be popular but not good leaders due to their lack of responsibilities. They tend to be happy due to the attention they have received (Hurlock, 1981).Transformational Leadership styleThey are those people that encourage and motivate the followers to achieve the goals. A transformational leader mostly needs to make decisions quickly. They take each opportunity that is presented to them. These leaders are very persistent. They have a vision and are passionate about it. They possess values such as conviction and a good character. These leaders are caring and they respect other individuals. These leaders are competent as well. These leaders tend to see that their vision is achieved in the organization. They see that there is a change brought about in their subordinates. They are innovative. They tend to integrate the creative insight and intuition within themselves. These leaders focus on the other aspects looking towards the future and not just the current situation they are confront with (Bhargava, 2003).According to the above literature review it can be seen that the first born are more responsible as they have grown up with adults. The last born tend not to take up responsibility and the y tend not to be good leaders. This helped in concluded and formulating the hypothesis that First born will be higher on Transformational Leadership style as compared to Last born.Transactional Leadership styleTransactional leadership style mainly focuses this attention on the role and task and how this is connect to the performance. The transactional leadership theory states emphasize on the relationships that are formed between the leader and follower on account of various exchanges (Burns, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). In 1978, according to Hollander he theorised this leadership as to have various dynamic processes. These were mainly in relation with the leader and follower and the interpersonal interactions among the two. These leaders were responsible to give clear instructions. They would reciprocate with the follower and respond to them appropriately. This in turn increased the leaders influence on them (Hollander, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). These leaders rewarded and gave the followers acknowledgement when the expectations or the goals were met. These leaders mainly negotiate and their roles and responsibilities and there is mutual respect and influence. According to Heifetz in 1994, these leaders influence their followers and they are also under the followers as it is a reciprocal relationship. According to Burns 2003, leaders who are involved in both the simple and complex situations and they try to achieve the organizational goals (Wheatley, 2010).Last borns are considered as saviours of their family as they give more emphasize to the accomplishments and achievements of their older siblings and this gives them a sense of position of esteem and significance (Stewart et al, 2001). They tend to lack in maturity as they have been pampered by their mothers more often. Since they are given more attention by their mother their extraverted ego is being fed and this is a reason they are considered to be more creative (Nakao et al, 2000 cited in Collin s, 2006).According to the transactional approach there exists and active relationship among the leader and follower where they are seen to influence one and another. The leader generally gives rewards to the follower and tries not to use autocratic measures (Wheatley, 2010). Younger siblings are described as being co-operative and outgoing. Investigations have also confirmed that middle born and last born are socially adept as compared to the older siblings (Coleston, 2008).According to the above literature review it was seen that the last born are seen more co-operative as compared to the older sibling who is more authoritative. Hence, the hypothesis that Last born will be higher on Transactional Leadership style than First born was formulated.Laissez Faire Leadership styleThe laissez faire leadership style is extremely the opposite of the other two leadership styles that are active. This is mostly linked to negative outcomes where there is low motivation seen by the leaders (Whe atley, 2010). There is an absence of any kind of Transaction (Wheatley, 2010).They are very passive leaders (Yammarino Bass, 1990 Yammarino, Spangler Bass, 1993, in Hartog et al 1997). These leaders generally avoid the decision making of the team. They also avoid supervising and taking up this responsibility.First-born when compared to last born children and middle children found that they are more socially adept than the rest. It was seen that the first born and only children had similar traits. They tended to be more self-confident, conscientious, responsible and less empathetic. The younger siblings were seen as rebellious and risk takers (Coleston, 2008). The first born children help to mentor their younger siblings. They tend to be good caretakers. The parents give more attention to the first born as compared to the last born. The last born generally dont take up responsibilities as the older sibling most often does that for them ( Kluger, 2011 cited in Murphy, 2012)Accordin g to the above literature review it can be first born will be more confident and responsible as compared to the last born. The will take up initiative and not rebel as compared to the last born. The laissez faire leadership is one where there is no supervising or responsibility taken.Hence, the hypothesis Last born will be higher on Laissez faire leadership style as compared to first born was formulated.2.3. summaryThe given chapter included a detailed literature on the variables that are studied. The hypotheses that were formulated were based on the reviewed literature and were hence inferred.