Saturday, August 31, 2019
William Shakespeare has been considered the greatest poet of all times. Only school educated, this great poet acquired fame because he had an extraordinary power of observation which he tempered with his brilliant imagination that gave a creative boost to his art. He was also gifted with unique taste of music which helped him to compose beautiful songs and sonnets. His imagination and observation along with a keen ear towards tone and rhythm rendered a sonorous and lyrical quality to his verses- something which was missing in other poets of his times. Ã¯âÅ¾Shakespeare wrote several comedies, tragedies and poems depicting his profound wisdom and psychological understanding of human nature. The poem Ã¢â¬ËAll WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s a StageÃ¢â¬â¢ is typical example of Shakespearean genius as he metaphorically compares the world to a stage where every human makes an entry like a stage actor, plays different roles and, when time declares, leaves the stage eventually. The poem is beautiful example of his vision of life. Ã¯âÅ¾The first stage of life is infancy. The poet here describes a baby crying and throwing out in the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s arm calling for attention. Ã¯âÅ¾In the second stage of life, the baby is now a school-going child who is unhappy and complaining as is unwilling to go to school but is forced to do so. Ã¯âÅ¾The third stage in life is that of a lover. Young man in this age is full of deep sighs missing his beloved. He is preoccupied with her thoughts so much so that he sits writing long poems in praise of her beauty. Ã¯âÅ¾The fourth stage in his life is that of a sincere and ambitious career-oriented professional. A this age he is competitive, jealous for opportunities, desires recognition even if it involves risk or great danger. Ã¯âÅ¾Next comes the middle-aged man, well-fed, highly experienced and full of wisdom. He has great sayings ready for every occasion and a remedy for every problem. Ã¯âÅ¾The sixth stage is that of a retired old man. He is thin and dressed comfortably, wearing specs and a small purse with him. He is wearing a hose of his youthful times which he has saved till now which helps him in walking. He is grouchy, complaining like a child carrying a pipe in mouth Ã¯âÅ¾The last stage of life is when man has grown, weak, feeble and lacks strength and vitality. His life is at an end and he has nothing to look forward to. All he has before him is a memory of good old days. He sits reminiscing those times without teeth, eye-sight, taste and everything (hopes, desires, aspirations, etc), patiently waiting for his death.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The Requirements of SFAS 116 and 117 and its effect on the financial statements The Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 116 and 117 are standards set for not- for-profit and non-governmental entities. The standards account for contributions and financial statement presentation (Granof, Khumawala, 2011). SFAS 116 defines how contributions are designated. Contributions can have donor-imposed restrictions. The standard defines three types of designations: 1. Permanently Restricted Ã¢â¬â The asset is specific by the donor, the principal is permanently restricted, but the income is available for use. 2. Temporarily restricted Ã¢â¬â The asset is restricted by purpose and time. The donor places the restrictions on the asset. The donor may request the asset be used for a specified purpose or time once the purpose or time has been fulfilled restriction is lifted. 3. Unrestricted Ã¢â¬â If the donor does not place any restrictions on the asset the asset is unrestricted. SFAS 117 clarifies the reporting of contributions for not-for-profit organizations on their financial statements. The standard requires three financial statements for not-for-profit entities: 1. Statement of Financial Position Ã¢â¬â essentially a Balance Sheet 2. Statement of Activities Ã¢â¬â SFAS 117 directs the revenues and expenses on the statement of activities focus on the organization as a whole versus individual funds. Gains and losses recognized on investments must be broken out from other assets. 3. Statement of Cash Flows Not-for-profit organizations need to be familiar with the changes that relate to SFAS 116 and 117 to be in compliance and to ensure the organization is reporting contributions correctly. References: Granof, Michael H. , Khumawala, Saleha B. , (2011). Government and Not-For-Profit Accounting (5th ed. ). River City, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Economist Skills - Case Study Example Entering a supervisory role means that one gives up some of the task orientation and gets involved in the planning aspects of the tasks at hand. Rather than being given the daily tasks to perform, as on the line, the supervisor must deal with the constraints (number of people, amount of time, budget) and the requirements (production quantity, quality). Add to this the human management aspects of the job upward. Whereas the plant manager is a distant figure to the people on the line, not sharing the pressures and difficulties of the job, he is more direct and confrontational with his/her supervisors, as they are the first-line managers responsible for getting things done. Managing upwards for Joe means that he must fit the requirements of the company and his capacities to complete them with the people he has. Like an Army lieutenant climbing over the foxhole, he knows that the ultimate goal is not just the next foxhole, but a broader battle plan that he may or may not choose to communicate with his employees. Joe must manage expectations upward. That means that if upper management is asking him to do something for which he doesn't have the resources (e.g. capital equipment, training of his people, time or expertise), Joe must communicate that clearly with management and come to a mutually-satisfying conclusion. The usual pattern on manufactu... In addition, the supervisor moves from top player to coach: rather than carrying out the tasks himself, he must teach those who must do the actual production. It's said that the best coaches are those who were just average players in their sport. Vince Lombardi played professional football with just average results, but he excelled as a coach. The reason for the difference is that coaches understand how to reach down to the mid-performing line worker and motivate him/her to excel. There are any number of ways that Joe could have failed as a first-line manager: He failed to communicate the needs of upper management to the production team, thus failing to give an adequate picture of what was expected, or He did not act as a buffer, or translator, of upper-management wishes. Sometimes the first-line manager will communicate the tension and insecurity of upper management without giving adequate translation into the tasks that need to be completed. He could have failed to supply enough information to give his team members an insight as to why the decisions on production levels, quality and other factors were being asked of them. His production team members were looking to Joe for leadership, not camaraderie. Joe may have found that the tools he used before (being a nice guy, getting along) are different than those he needs now to succeed (providing direction and feedback). How Might This Have Been Avoided Management clearly failed Joe in two key ways: 1. They should have assessed Joe on his leadership qualities, not his ability to perform his work on the line. 2. They should have provided Joe with the management tools he needed in order to succeed, including training, coaching and feedback. Bibliography Berger, D., n.d., It's All About the People, Plant
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Survey interview - Essay Example Likewise, it was emphasized that deciding respond was completely voluntary and the results would be presented only as part of the class requirements. From the designed survey, it could be deduced that the respondents were able to accomplish it in the stipulated time frame since the questions were mostly close-ended questions and only one was open-ended (question 13) (Attending a WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Varsity Sport , 2014). The findings revealed that only freshmen students were not fully aware of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s varsity sport which could be due to their being new to the campus. Likewise, the students from the junior and senior levels were more aware of the sports events for women but their attendance to these events depend highly on their enthusiasm for sports or if they have friends who they want to support and see. The response to the last question regarding motivating them to attend womenÃ¢â¬â¢s varsity sporting event in the future depended on the time for extra-curricular activities; as well as their genuine enthusiasm for the sport. After the survey and interview with each respondent, I thanked them profusely and expressed how grateful I was for their participation and support to this endeavor. I reiterated that the results would be presented in class, and if they are interested, I could provide them with a report on how the results eventually emerged. The experience provided me with the opportunity to build my confidence in interacting with people from diverse backgrounds with the aim of achieving the learning objectives identified for the class. As such, it was an enlightening and rewarding learning experience where interview skills were enhanced; as well as the ability to interpret survey
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Are Women Really Better Leaders - Essay Example Thus, this paper intends to explore the issue of the difference in leadership styles between the two genders to answer the question: Are women better leaders? In 1996, Belenky made a study on organizations run by women and identified how female leaders assumed their functions differently that from men. Belensky (1996) noted that women leaders Ã¢â¬Å"developed themselves as public leaders by extending and elaborating womenÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional roles and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ways to an extraordinary degreeÃ¢â¬ (p. 412). This statement can be supported by the case of Anne Mulcahy, former CEO of Xerox who influenced people by working side by side with them through hard times. Xerox then was in a time of financial bankruptcy; in fact, she herself worked for two consecutive years without a weekend off. Her passion and perseverance kept her going on despite the warnings of financial advisors that Xerox would not be able to make it. Mulcahy was not just an ordinary leader, she was very extra-ordinary that gender did not matter at all. Amazingly, she was able to change the course of Xerox and her successor is even a woman too. It is easy to manage people when they are satisfied; however, good leaders emerge when the scenario is full of adversity. This is what made Mulcahy different since she rose from the ranks and took the helm without doubting herself. However, this does not mean that Mulcahy is a good leader because she is a woman; instead, she performed beyond her traditional role that is why she became a great leader. Sex-typing of leadership abilities does not place women in higher position nor does it give them more respect. Rather, society should view women as Ã¢â¬Å" peopleÃ¢â¬ , not Ã¢â¬Å"men and womenÃ¢â¬ (Debate, p. 151). Women are managers and good leaders because they worked hard to educate themselves and earn professional experience. The successor of Mulcahy is Ursula
Monday, August 26, 2019
Final paper - Essay Example Adhering to a tradition that is historicary and theologically interconnected to two other religions means to stick to something common among all religions, as all of them believe in the existence of only one God The Jews use the Hebrew bible as their canon, the canon contains the story and the portrayals of Abraham Jews refer to Abraham as Abram, which later changed to Abraham after the making of the covenant, in the canon Abraham is the son of Terah, husband to Sarah and father to Isaac. In Judaism, sticking to the Abraham tradition is because of his obedience in God and the faith he had in God, Abraham was righteous. The covenant he made with God, which is to make him the father of all nations with circumcision as the physical evidence to show all his descendants, is also very important in Judaism. Abraham was a man full of faith and obedience, when God called Abraham and instructed him to leave his home Haran to go to an identified destination Abraham obeyed and left, God however made a covenant with Abraham used up to date by the Jews . The covenant between God and Abraham was that of giving him many descendants, as the stars in heaven, that is from Abraham a great nation would emerge that would greatly benefit human kind. Despite the fact that Abraham and Sarah and no children, Abraham had faith in God that he would fulfil his promise by giving him a son Jews view circumcision very important up to date, they believe that for all the descendants of Abraham circumcision should be necessary just as the Hebrew bible states that the covenant is everlasting to all the descendants of Abraham. Judaism religion is guided by the covenant in which the followers believe to have emerged; this brings to the religion the meaning of Abraham in their teachings. Jews also have the believe in the faith and the obedience that Abraham had in the almighty God. Even with all the doubt that Sarah
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Business Issues in Business Intelligence - Essay Example vels of a corporation to more simply access, identify, evaluate, collaborate, and perform operations on information, anywhere and anytime (TechTarget; Microsoft). Though, many business intelligence tools work fine and help organizations take better decisions. They provide exact targets, graphs, drill-through and drill-downs. However, a great deal of work in an operational data warehouse system entails processing of data collected from different operational systems into the data warehouse. In this process of decision making and making intelligible decisions, there exist many problems regarding ETL (extraction, transformation and loading). In other words, while collecting huge amount of data from different sources we can face many issues regarding ETL. These issues can also influence the overall quality of decisions and business operations. In addition, ETL can entail substantial complexity and significant operational problems those can take place due to improperly designed ETL systems that can eventually influence the performance of BI systemÃ¢â¬â¢s working and operations (Scott). The successful implementation of BI requires plenty of data analysis and evaluation. In this scenario we need to assess the quality of data in predicting the results. On the other hand, data warehouses are normally assembled from a mixture of data sources with different formats as well as purposes. In this scenario, ETL is a key process to bring the entire data together in a standard and uniform structure. In case a problem happens to ETL process overall working and operations of the corporate decision support can be exaggerated. In addition, it will lead to ineffective and lower quality results. Moreover, major issues in ETL can include: (Kimball and Caserta; Kimball and Ross, The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Complete Guide to Dimensional Modeling, 2nd Edition) The presence of any of the above listed issues can affect the implementation of business intelligence. These issues can also lead
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Emerson calls for the emergence of an American poetics - Essay Example In what ways does William Cullen Bryant move away from imitating British poetry and address American themes? In what ways does he play by the familiar rules of the epic tradition? In Ã¢â¬ËThe PrairiesÃ¢â¬â¢, Bryant can be felt to exude the poet-function which Emerson necessitates by rendering his literary work converge to a Ã¢â¬ËtranscendentalistÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective. Though it is conspicuous in depicting the Ã¢â¬Ënature of natureÃ¢â¬â¢ or the way nature is in its downright truth, Ã¢â¬ËThe PrairiesÃ¢â¬â¢ brings about discernment of a kind of spirituality attached with nature which essentially surpasses the mere drawing of relevant sentiments toward its physical attributes. Similarly, Bryant emerges to possess a level of authenticity according to the standards set by Emerson for the American poetics based on his poemÃ¢â¬â¢s strong sense of individuality which is a typical element in American themes upon almost every form of American literature. As such, Bryant projects an open mind capable of sensibly resonating back to the reader the deeper essence of Ã¢â¬ËThe PrairiesÃ¢â¬â¢ which establishes its identity after the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s unique insight.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Property law - Essay Example Therefore, for purposes of this brief essay, this author will attempt to engage and analyze the level to which property rights play a defined and equitable part of our current society as well as seeking to define and comment on the issues associated with the recent problems regarding the understanding of Ã¢â¬Å"eminent domainÃ¢â¬ . The United States was founded upon a free market economy which has doubtless served to make it the wealthiest nation on earth. Whether or not one can completely agree with the way in which capitalism works, it is inarguable that the benefits of such a system have worked to raise a standard of living and overall economic power within the United States that is not represented elsewhere in the global system. Naturally, one of the prime determinants of this success is the strong belief in and adherence to the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"personal propertyÃ¢â¬ . After breaking away from the British Empire, the colonies sought to differentiate themselves from the exces ses that the British had visited upon them. One of the main reasons in the Declaration of Independence was the fact that the British Crown could commandeer and control any colonial asset in the name of the King for any reason at any time. This served as a very strong sore spot within the colonial shareholders and was no doubt a prime reason why the rebellion began as well as a prime reason that each of the states as well as the loosely confederated government above them sought to rigidly define property rights in terms that would be most beneficial to the owner. Fundamental changes to property rights began to be effected in and around the dawn of the 20th century as jurisdictions began to tax these properties as a way to generate revenue for the requisite entity in question. Although opposed by many, this form of tax became more or less standardized throughout the United States by the middle of the century. Although not all citizens appreciated this new trend, the taxes went to supp ort the economic development of an increasingly advanced society. To such an end, the revenues from taxable land have been primarily used for infrastructure improvement, support and development of key community services (to include fire, police and EMS), and providing useful shareholder investment into a regionÃ¢â¬â¢s educational development. Some have argued that the existence of such a form of taxation necessarily reduces the overall level of ownership that the individual is able to enjoy. However, it is the belief of this author that taxation of land and other real investments, although taking a degree of ultimate ownership away from the individual, serves an extraordinarily important role in seeking to develop key infrastructure assets that necessarily add to the net value of the property in question. Lastly, the right of Ã¢â¬Å"eminent domainÃ¢â¬ is an issue that has dominated many news headlines of late. Broken down to its purest form, Ã¢â¬Å"eminent domainÃ¢â¬ refers to a subset of property laws that state that if requisition by a given public entity is in the best benefits of a broader group then such can be accomplished with or without the agreement of the ultimate property owner providing that notice is given (Blake 12). This is naturally a bit of a deviation from the original understanding and intention of personal property; however, such an interpretation is needed in extreme cases where infrastructure improvements hinge upon the sacrifices of a few key shareholders. Like any
Management of change with reference to change management models - Essay Example This is necessary for all the implications of the change in any organisation. The change has been analysed according to the model. They are as follows: 7 PROCHASKA AND DICLEMENTEÃ¢â¬â¢S CHANGE THEORY 8 ANALYSIS OF THE INDIVIDUAL POWER AND POLITICAL RELATIONSHIPS ON THE MANAGEMENT STYLES OF THE ORGANISATION 10 UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMICS OF THE POWER 11 POWER MODEL 11 EXPERT MODEL 12 CONCLUSION 13 INTRODUCTION CASE PERSPECTIVE The use of the change management in any organisation is subject to a number of factors that are inherent to the nature of the organisation. The development of the resources is one of the primal factors that decide the shape of the organisation. The use of the different kind of parameters is one of the ways in which the change management of an organisation is accomplished. After the careful observation of this case study in a very objective manner, there has been the identification of the change initiatives to the various kinds of models of the change management . The college, Pearmount College is a medium sized institution in the field of the further education. The college has a part of the social responsibility being the only college that has the post-graduation facility in this place. All the sixteen courses are run in the manner of the post-graduation. The use of the resources is also an area of concern. The performance for the A level was found to be satisfactory (albeit average), but the sixth form colleges were having a very bad performance. This could be attributed to the teaching methods. The new principal of the institution took to the steps of reform for a change in the existing facilities. The aim was to provide the best type of sixth form in the country. There were a number of inherent issues that need to be taken in the context for the use of the data. The factors that triggered the change management measures were as follows- The quality of the full time course was under the scanner. There was differential gradient that existe d between the vocational and the full time courses. The staffs of the institution are ageing. The distribution of the workload was also seen to be uneven. In the case of the removal of the vocational course, it was seen that the level of the activity reduced by a great extent. This created a lot of functional problems in the field of the allotment of the appropriate kind of the workload. The efficiency of the programs was also to be questioned due to the rapid kind of the changes being faced by the institution. The changes proposed were as follows: The restructuring of the staff. The increase of the number of the working hours of the students and the staff. This was done to enable more amount of the teaching to happen. This shall also allow the development of the college. The impact of the changes would also be higher in this context. The pay structure of the institution was to change, with the introduction of some higher paid posts and the lower paid posts. The existing lecturer co uld re-apply without the assured chances of the re-instatement in the college. The major positions had been given a 90 day period by teaching staff, and rapid progress was made in its implementation. There are a number of theories that can be applied in the context of the organisational change. They could
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The American Civil War Essay After the War of Independence the United States of America was governed by the Articles of Confederation. This provided for a weak central government and strong state governments. However, it proved unworkable and a new Constitution was adopted that resulted in a stronger Federal government with powers which included regulating interstate commerce as well as foreign affairs. The different states had varying policies concerning slavery. In some areas of the country where religious groups such as the Quakersplayed a prominent role in political life, there was strong opposition to having slaves. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1774 and was soon followed by Vermont (1777), Pennsylvania (1780), Massachusetts (1781), New Hampshire (1783), Connecticut (1784), New York (1799) and New Jersey (1804). The new states of Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oregon, California and Illinois also did not have slaves. The importation of slaves from other countries was banned in 1808. However, the selling of slaves within the southern states continued. Conflict grew in the 19th century between the northern and southern states over the issue of slavery. The northern states were going through an industrial revolution and desperately needed more people to work in its factories. Industrialists in the North believed that, if freed, the slaves would leave the South and provide the labour they needed. The North also wanted tariffs on imported foreign goods to protect their new industries. The South was still mainly agricultural and purchased a lot of goods from abroad and was therefore against import tariffs. In 1831 Arthur Tappan and Lewis Tappan established the first Anti-Slavery Society in New York. When two years later it became a national organization, Tappan was elected its first president. William Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Weld, Samuel Eli Cornish, Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke Robert Purvis, Wendell Phillips, John Greenleaf Whittier, Frederick Douglass, Lucretia Mott, Lydia Maria Child, William Wells Brownsoon emerged as the main figures in the organization. Its main supporters were from religious groups such as the Quakers and from the free black community. By 1840 the society had 250,000 members, published more than twenty journals and 2,000 local chapters. The growth in the Antislavery Society worried slaveowners in the South. They feared that the activities of the abolitionists would make it more difficult to run their plantation system. Where possible they wanted to see an expansion of slavery into other areas. They therefore supported the annexation of Texas as they were certain it would become a slave state. They also favoured the Mexican War and agitated for the annexation of Cuba. Conflict grew in the middle of 19th century between the northern and southern states over the issue of slavery. The northern states were going through an industrial revolution and desperately needed more people to work in its factories. Industrialists in the North believed that, if freed, the slaves would leave the South and provide the labour they needed. The North also wanted tariffs on imported foreign goods to protect their new industries. The South was still mainly agricultural and purchased a lot of goods from abroad and was therefore against import tariffs. In 1850 Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law. In future, any federal marshal who did not arrest an alleged runaway slave could be fined $1,000. People suspected of being a runaway slave could be arrested without warrant and turned over to a claimant on nothing more than his sworn testimony of ownership. A suspected black slave could not ask for a jury trial nor testify on his or her behalf. Any person aiding a runaway slave by providing shelter, food or any other form of assistance was liable to six months imprisonment and a $1,000 fine. Those officers capturing a fugitive slave were entitled to a fee and this encouraged some officers to kidnap free African Americans and sell them to slave-owners. Frederick Douglass, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison and John Greenleaf Whittier led the fight against the Fugitive Slave Law. Even moderate anti-slavery leaders such as Arthur Tappan declared he was now willing to disobey the law and as a result helped fund theUnderground Railroad. In 1854 Stephen A. Douglas introduced his Kansas-Nebraska bill to the Senate. These states could now enter the Union with or without slavery. Frederick Douglass warned that the bill was an open invitation to a fierce and bitter strife. The result of this legislation was to open the territory to organized migrations of pro-slave and anti-slave groups. Southerners now entered the area with their slaves while active members of the Antislavery Society also arrived. Henry Ward Beecher, condemned the bill from his pulpit and helped to raise funds to supply weapons to those willing to oppose slavery in these territories. Kansas elected its first legislature in March, 1855. Although less than 2,000 people were qualified to take part in these elections, over 6,000 people voted. These were mainly Missouri slave-owners who had crossed the border to make sure pro-slavery candidates were elected. The new legislature passed laws that imposed the death penalty for anyone helping a slave to escape and two years in jail for possessing abolitionist literature. In 1856 Abraham Lincoln joined the Republican Party and unsuccessfully challenged Stephen A. Douglas for his seat in the Senate. Lincoln was opposed to Douglass proposal that the people living in the Louisiana Purchase (Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, the Dakotas, Montana, and parts of Minnesota, Colorado and Wyoming) should be allowed to own slaves. Lincoln argued that the territories must be kept free for poor people to go and better their condition. Abraham Lincoln raised the issue of slavery again in 1858 when he made a speech at Quincy, Illinois. Lincoln argued: We have in this nation the element of domestic slavery. The Republican Party think it wrong we think it is a moral, a social, and a political wrong. We think it is wrong not confining itself merely to the persons of the States where it exists, but that it is a wrong which in its tendency, to say the least, affects the existence of the whole nation. Because we think it wrong, we propose a course of policy that shall deal with it as a wrong. We deal with it as with any other wrong, insofar as we can prevent it growing any larger, and so deal with it that in the run of time there may be some promise of an end to it. Lincolns speech upset Southern slaveholders and poor whites, who valued the higher social status they enjoyed over slaves. However, with rapid European immigration taking place in the North, they had a declining influence over federal government. Opponents of slavery were also becoming more militant in their views. John Brown and five of his sons moved to Kansas Territory to help antislavery forces obtain control of this region. With the support of Gerrit Smith and other prominent Abolitionists, Brown moved to Virginia where he established a refuge for runaway slaves. In 1859 John Brown led a party of 21 men in a successful attack on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. Brown hoped that his action would encourage slaves to join his rebellion, enabling him to form an emancipation army. Two days later the armory was stormed by Robert E. Lee and a company of marines. Brown and six men barricaded themselves in an engine-house, and continued to fight until Brown was seriously wounded and two of his sons had been killed. Brown was executed on 2nd December, 1859. Southern slaveholders were outraged when in 1860 the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its presidential candidate in 1860. They looked to the Democratic Party to defend its interests but when it met in Charleston in April, 1860, it selected, Stephen A. Douglas. Unhappy with this decision, Southern delegates decided to hold another convention in Baltimore in June, where they selected John Breckenridge of Kentucky to fight the election. The situation was further complicated by the formation of the Constitutional Union Party and the nomination of John Bell of Tennessee as its presidential candidate. Abraham Lincoln won with 1,866,462 votes (18 free states) and beat Stephen A. Douglas (1,375,157 1 slave state), John Breckenridge(847,953 13 slave states) and John Bell (589,581 3 slave states). In January 1862 the Union Army began to push the Confederates southward. The following month Ulysses S. Grant took his army along the Tennessee River with a flotilla of gunboats and captured Fort Henry. This broke the communications of the extended Confederate line andJoseph E. Johnston decided to withdraw his main army to Nashville. He left 15,000 men to protect Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River but this was not enough and Grant had no difficulty taking this prize as well. With western Tennessee now secured, Abraham Lincoln was now able to set up a Union government in Nashville by appointing Andrew Johnson as its new governor. General George McClellan appointed Allan Pinkerton to employ his agents to spy on the Confederate Army. His reports exaggerated the size of the enemy and McClellan was unwilling to launch an attack until he had more soldiers available. Under pressure from Radical Republicans in Congress, Abraham Lincoln decided in January, 1862, to remove the conservative Simon Cameron as Secretary of War, and replace him with Edwin M. Stanton. Soon after this Lincoln ordered George McClellan to appear before a committee investigating the way the war was being fought. On 15th January, 1862, McClellan had to face the hostile questioning of Benjamin Wade and Zachariah Chandler. Wade asked McClellan why he was refusing to attack the Confederate Army. He replied that he had to prepare the proper routes of retreat. Chandler then said: General McClellan, if I understand you correctly, before you strike at the rebels you want to be sure of plenty of room so that you can run in case they strike back. Wade added Or in case you get scared. After McClellan left the room, Wade and Chandler came to the conclusion that McClellan was guilty of infernal, unmitigated cowardice. As a result of this meeting Abraham Lincoln decided he must find a way to force McClellan into action. On 31st January he issued General War Order Number One. This ordered McClellan to begin the offensive against the enemy before the 22nd February. Lincoln also insisted on being consulted about McClellans military plans. Lincoln disagreed with McClellans desire to attack Richmond from the east. Lincoln only gave in when the division commanders voted 8 to 4 in favour of McClellans strategy. However, Lincoln no longer had confidence in McClellan and removed him from supreme command of the Union Army. He also insisted that McClellan left 30,000 men behind to defendWashington. Albert S. Johnston and Pierre T. Beauregard reunited their Confederate armies near the Tennessee-Mississippi line. With 55,000 men they now outnumbered the forces led by Ulysses S. Grant. On 6th April the Confederate Army attacked Grants army at Shiloh. Taken by surprise, Grants army suffered heavy losses until the arrival of General Don Carlos Buell and reinforcements. During the fighting Albert S. Johnston was killed and the new commander, Pierre T. Beauregard, decided to retreat to Corinth, Mississippi.Shiloh was the greatest battle so far of the Civil War. The Union Army suffered 13,000 casualties and the Confederates lost 10,000. However, the Union Army, with the arrival of General Henry Halleck and his troops, were now the stronger and had little difficulty driving Beauregard out of Corinth. The difference in manpower between the two sides now becoming more noticeable. Whereas the Union consisted of 23 states and 22,000,000 people, the Confederacy had only 9,000,000 people (including 3,500,000 slaves). President Jefferson Davis now announced that the South could not win the war without conscription. In April the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which drafted white men between eighteen and thirty-five for three years service. In May, 1862 General David Hunter began enlisting black soldiers in the occupied districts of South Carolina. He was ordered to disband the 1st South Carolina (African Descent) but eventually got approval from Congress for his action. Hunter also issued a statement that all slaves owned by Confederates in the area were free. Lincoln quickly ordered Hunter to retract his proclamation as he still feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to join the Confederates. Radical Republicans were furious and John Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, said that from the day our government turned its back on the proclamation of General Hunter, the blessing of God has been withdrawn from our arms. The actions of General David Hunter and Lincolns reaction stimulated a discussion on the recruitment of black soldiers in the Northern press. Wendell Phillips asked, How many times are we to save Kentucky and lose the war? This debate was also taking place in the Cabinet, as Edwin M. Stanton was now advocating the creation of black regiments in the Union Army. Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, one of the leaders of the anti-slavery movement, urged Lincoln to convert the war into a war on slavery. Lincoln replied that he would continue to place the Union ahead of all else. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. The federal fleet under David Farragut captured the forts guarding the New Orleans in April, 1862. The following month General Benjamin F. Butler and his troops took control of the city. Butler was accused of treating Rebels very harshly and after ordering the execution of a man who had torn down the United States flag, he was nicknamed the beast. Alexander Walker, a pro-Confederate journalist who was one of those arrested, complained that the prisoners were: closely confined in portable houses and furnished with the most wretched and unwholesome condemned soldiers rations. He added that some were compelled to wear a ball and chain, which is never removed. President Jefferson Davis accused Benjamin F. Butler of inciting African slaves to insurrection by arming them for war. Davis issued a statement ordering that Butler no longer be considered or treated simply as a public enemy of the Confederate States of America, but as an outlaw and common enemy of mankind, and that, in the event of his capture, the officer in command of the captured force do cause him to be immediately executed by hanging. During the summer of 1862, George McClellan and the Army of the Potomac, took part in what became known as the Peninsular Campaign. The main objective was to capture Richmond, the base of the Confederate government. McClellan and his 115,000 troops encountered the Confederate Army at Williamsburg on 5th May. After a brief battle the Confederate forces retreated South. McClellan moved his troops into the Shenandoah Valley and along with John C. Fremont, Irvin McDowell and Nathaniel Banks surroundedThomas Stonewall Jackson and his 17,000 man army. First Jackson attacked John C. Fremont at Cross Keys before turning on Irvin McDowell at Port Republic. Jackson then rushed his troops east to join up with Joseph E. Johnston and the Confederate forces fighting McClellan in the suburbs the city. General Joseph E. Johnston with some 41,800 men counter-attacked McClellans slightly larger army at Fair Oaks. The Union Army lost 5,031 men and the Confederate Army 6,134. Johnson was badly wounded during the battle and General Robert E. Lee now took command of the Confederate forces. On 26th June, 1862, Major General John Pope, was appointed the commander of the new Army of Virginia. Pope soon made it clear he intended to develop an aggressive approach to the war. Soon after taking command he issued a proclamation to his troops: I have come to you from the West, where we have always seen the backs of our enemies; from an army whose business it has been to seek the adversary, and to beat him where he was found; whose policy has been attack and not defense. I presume that I have been called here to pursue the same system and to lead you against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so, and that speedily. Major General John Pope was instructed to move east to Blue Ridge Mountains towards Charlottesville. It was hoped that this move would help McClellan by drawing Robert E. Lee away from defending Richmond. Lees 80,000 troops were now faced with the prospect of fighting two large armies: McClellan (90,000) and Pope (50,000) Joined by Thomas Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, and George Pickett, the Confederate troops attacked George McClellan atGaines Mill. and on 27th June. After severe fighting the Union Army losses were 893 killed, 3,107 wounded and 2,836 missing. Whereas the Confederate Army had 8,751 killed and wounded. George McClellan wrote to Abraham Lincoln complaining that a lack of resources was making it impossible to defeat the Confederate forces. He also made it clear that he was unwilling to employ tactics that would result in heavy casualties. He claimed that ever poor fellow that is killed or wounded almost haunts me! On 1st July, 1862, McClellan and Lincoln met at Harrison Landing. McClellan once again insisted that the war should be waged against the Confederate Army and not slavery. In July, 1862, John Pope decided to try a capture Gordonsville, a railroad junction between Richmond and the Shenandoah Valley. Pope selected Nathaniel Banks to carry out the task. Robert E. Lee considered Gordonsville to be strategically very important and sent Thomas Stonewall Jackson to protect the town. On 9th August, Jackson defeated Banks at Cedar Run. George McClellan and army based at Harrisons Landing was told to join Popes campaign to take the railroad junction. When Lee heard this news he brought together all the troops he had available to Gordonsville. On 29th August, troops led by Thomas Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet, attacked Popes Union Army at Manassas, close to where the first battle of Bull Run had been fought. Pope and his army was forced to retreat across Bull Run. The Confederate Army pursued the Army of Virginia until they reached Chantilly on 1st September. The Union Army lost 15,000 men at Bull Run. John Pope was blamed for the defeat. A staff officer later recalled that Pope was entirely deceived and outgeneralled. His own conceit and pride of opinion led him into these mistakes. Relieved of his command Pope was sent to Minnesota to deal with a Sioux uprising. The government was now seriously concerned about the poor performance of the Union Army and Salmon Chase (Secretary of the Treasury), Edwin M. Stanton (Secretary of War) and vice president Hannibal Hamlin, who were all strong opponents of slavery, led the campaign to have George McClellan sacked. Unwilling to do this, Abraham Lincoln decided to put McClellan in charge of all forces in theWashington area. George McClellan became a field commander again when the Confederate Army invaded Maryland in September. McClellan and Major General Ambrose Burnside attacked the armies of Robert E. Lee and Thomas Stonewall Jackson at Antietam on 17th September. Outnumbered, Lee and Jackson held out until Ambrose Hill and reinforcements arrived. It was the most costly day of the war with the Union Army having 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded and 753 missing. Although far from an overwhelming victory, Lincoln realized the significance of Antietam and on 22nd September, 1862, he felt strong enough to issue his Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln told the nation that from the 1st January, 1863, all slaves in states or parts of states, still in rebellion, would be freed. However, to keep the support of the conservatives in the government, this proclamation did not apply to border slave states: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri that had remained loyal. Lincoln now wanted George McClellan to go on the offensive against the Confederate Army. However, McClellan refused to move, complaining that he needed fresh horses. Radical Republicans now began to openly question McClellans loyalty. Could the commander be loyal who had opposed all previous forward movements, and only made this advance after the enemy had been evacuated wrote George W. Julian. Whereas William P. Fessenden came to the conclusion that McClellan was utterly unfit for his position. Frustrated by McClellan unwillingness to attack, Abraham Lincoln recalled him to to Washington with the words: My dear McClellan: If you dont want to use the Army I should like to borrow it for a while. On 7th November Lincoln removed McClellan from all commands and replaced him with Ambrose Burnside. Throughout the autumn of 1862 the Confederate Army continued to make progress in Kentucky. However, in September, General E. Kirby Smith was halted by Union troops led by General Don Carlos Buell in Covington. The following month General Braxton Bragg installed a Confederate government in Frankfort, Kentucky. However, this was short-lived and on 8th October, 1862, Bragg came under attack atPerryville (Chaplin Hills). During the battle Don Carlos Buell lost 4,211 men (845 killed, 2,851 wounded, and 515 missing) whereas Braxton Bragg lost 3,396 (510 killed, 2635 wounded and 251 missing). After the battle Bragg was forced to retreat back to Tennessee. General Ambrose Burnside had replaced George McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac on 7th November, 1862. After complaints that had been made by President Abraham Lincoln and the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, about the inaction of the Union Army, Burnside was determined to immediately launch an attack on the Confederate Army. With a force of 122,000, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, Edwin Sumner, William Franklin attacked General Robert E. Lee and his army of 78,500, at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on 13th December. Sharpshooters based in the town initially delayed the Union Army from building a pontoon bridge across the Rappahnnock River. After clearing out the snipers the federal forces had the problem of mounting frontal assaults against troops commanded by James Longstreet. At the end of the day the Union Army had 12,700 men killed or wounded. The well protected Confederate Army suffered losses of 5,300. Ambrose Burnside wanted to renew the attack the following morning but was talked out of it by his commanders.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Case Study on the nature vs nurture debate Is a childs development influenced by genetics or could the majority of influence be found in the childs environment? The nature vs. nurture debate has been at the forefront of psychology for many decades. The purpose of this essay is to try and answer this question using the case study of Genie. The essay shall also look at some of the roles that a multidisciplinary team would play in a case like Genies and if there was any hope of rehabilitation. The big question that had to be answered is whether or not it was too late for her to develop into a normal adult. Lenneberg (1957) (cited in Hayes, 1998) asserted that the critical period, in development for children is before puberty and if a child had not learnt how to speak, they would never pass the 2-3 word telegraphic stage. Lenneberg felt that after the critical stage has passed language would not be achieved normally after puberty. Chomsky (1957) (cited in Cardwell et al, 2010) stated that all human language has the same basic rules when it comes to grammar and structure. For most individuals development of language comes naturally as they grow. According to Chomsky (cited in Hayes, 1998), language is foremost a product of the brain and children have an innate acquisition device. The Chomskyan view supports the nature theory as he believed that infants are born with an idea of how language works and this inborn knowledge must be activated through exposure to language at the appropriate time. It is commonly known that behaviour is affected by consequences. Skinners (1935) (cited in Cardwell 1996) theory of operant conditioning states that the process does not require repeated efforts but an immediate reaction to a familiar stimulus. In the case of Genie, she was raised in isolation where she spent most of her childhood locked up in a bedroom. It is argued that her lack of language was due to the physical abuse from her father when she made a noise. It is noted that her father never spoke to her even when beating her. He was said to have barked and growled at her like a dog. In the following months after her discovery Genies mother reported that just after Genies isolation that she heard her saying words (Pines, 1997). This would show that Genie was on course to learn language. This would prove the theory of Chomsky, but would be against Lenneberg as he had theorised that the brain of a child before the age of two has not matured enough for the acquisition of language (Pines, 1997). However, throughout her life Genie failed to learn the grammar and sentence structure that according to Chomsky separates the language of human beings from other species. This could prove that she had passed the critical period for la nguage acquisition. With her history of operant conditioning, it can be argued that the behaviourist approach would be the best way to rehabilitate Genie. This would mean that the team dealing with Genie would have to change the consequences of an action. If Genie had been in the care of a modern day multidisciplinary team she would have been referred to several specialists. It can be assumed that Genie had expressive and receptiveÃ language disorders due to her isolation. It is possible that part of her language issue may have related to the fact that her oral muscles had not developed enough for her to produce the correct sounds. During her years of isolation Genie was fed on baby food and soft foods. It has been documented that she would leave food in her mouth until the enzymes in her saliva started to digest the food (Pines, 1997). Genie would receive one to one attention from a speech and language therapist to try and overcome her speech and feeding difficulties. Language intervention activities would be effective with Genie as the therapist would interact and built a therapeutic relationship by appropriately playing and talking with her. The therapist would demonstrate how sounds are made and how to move the tongue to make certain sounds and use a variety of exercises to strengthen the muscles of the mouth. Genie could be sent to an occupational therapist (OT) in order to assess her needs and develop a care intervention plan. OTs believe that behaviour is learned and that poor or non advantageous behaviours can be unlearned and replaced by lasting habits (Turner et al). The OT could design a program for Genie that incorporates social skill training, anxiety management and behaviour modification. The use of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (appendix 1) would measure Genies progress and ensure that a humanistic approach is taken regarding her care and rehabilitation. The COPM put Genie at the centre of her care plan and seeks to help her find meaning to her life in her everyday activities. As the months progressed Genie showed numerous breakthroughs. One such break through was noticed when Dr James Kent left Genie and she showed a change of facial expression. Genie had treated everyone the same and showed no emotional reaction to anyone or anything, however Dr Kent noticed her expression changed from happy to sad. She had always shown the ability to explore her environment but had never shown emotion. This showed that she could develop emotional attachments therefore she was able to learn. Bowlby (1969, 1973) (cited in Cardwell et al, 1996) stated that the importance of emotional attachment to a caregiver ensures that the child will be fed, protected from harm and educated. There is evidence to say that an infants need to form attachments is innate. This would also suggest that the parent also has an innate tendency to form attachments with their children. From an evolutionary point of view it is in the mothers best interest to see her children grow up and produce chil dren of their own. Through research, Klaus and Kennel (1976) (cited in psychology4a.com) found that mothers that were allowed constant contact with their newborn babies developed stronger bonds that mothers that only had contact for feeding. This has lead to the skin to skin hypothesis that has been implemented in hospitals. Fathers are also encouraged to be present at the birth to develop an early attachment. In the case of Genie little is known about her birth, however since she was born pre 1976 it is assumed that the father was not present at the birth and that mother and child were separated soon after the birthing process. This could have played a part in the inability to form an emotional attachment to Genie that lead to her years of abuse. David Rigler had advised that he felt that it was important for Genie to develop strong emotional attachments as part of her development. David Rigler and his wife Marilyn ended up fostering Genie. The Riglers took on the roles of Genies t herapy, teacher, principle investigator, and foster parents. While living with the Riglers Genie showed improvements in her therapy sessions. This could be due to her being in a nurturing environment were she was praised for making progress. This theory on learning is support by behaviourists Skinner (1957) (cited in Hayes, 1998) and Thorndyke (1911) (cited in Cardwell, 1996), who saw learning as happening mainly through the law of (positive) effect. This was demonstrated in the Skinner box experiment (Cardwell, 1996), which rewarded rats with food for a positive action. Initially the trap animal would demonstrate escape seeking behaviour; however one of the actions would provide the subject with a food reinforcer. This would result in the subject changing its behaviour to seek the reward. So in Genies case, every time she received praise for a positive action, she was more likely to repeat the action. While Genie was in isolation, her physiological needs were not completely met. According to Maslows (1954) (cited in Turner, 2007) hierarchy of needs (appendix 2), there are two sets of human needs. One set concerns basic survival needs such as physiological and basic safety needs. The other set concerns self-actualisation, the realisation of an individuals full potential as shown in creativity and the use of intellect. Since her physiological needs were not met Maslows theory states that she would not have been able to ascend the hierarchy and begin to satisfy her creative and intellectual drives. Dr. J. Shirley the psychiatrist, wanted to determine her mental capabilities. The sleep test that was carried out showed Genie had patterns that indicated mental retardation. It is not known if Genie was born this way or if the severe neglect contributed in her mental health. It is documented that at 14 months, Genie was diagnosed as being mentally retarded. It can be argued that Genie was not born mentally retarded but was handicapped due to lack of normal childhood development during her early years. Further test results showed that Genie did not display any left brain activity because it appeared not to have developed during her pre-pubescent years. The left part of the brain is the area that is responsible for language acquisition and development. Psychological tests showed that her mental age increased by one year, every year since her discovery. This is not characteristic of mental retardation. It can be argued that because the critical stage was missed, the biological ability for the brain to fully develop was therefore impaired. There are several flaws in the nature versus nurture debate. The flaw in the use of Skinners rats is that breeding within a family, as rats do, is known to cause genetic problems that can impair intelligence. There is also the question relating to Genies mental retardation. If she was born retarded then her ability to develop at the relevant critical periods was impaired from birth by nature. In Genies case it can be argued that nurture seemed to play a greater role than nature. She suffered from an environment were she was not nurtured positively. Most present day researchers agree that human traits are determined by both nature and nurture. They may disagree on which part has the greater influence.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Whistle Blowing We live in a complicated society. Every decision that we make is based upon our health, safety, economic and human rights. At times the decisions made are by the corrupt, incompetent and lazy, which leads to the compromise of the ethical standards of our society. Accidents happen or corruption flourishes because of employees who know about the wrong doings but are afraid of losing their jobs. In the modern society, the importance of whistle blowing is increasingly being recognized as a measure to reduce corruption and avoid dangerous situations by encouraging the disclosure of unethical, illegal or prohibited activities performed by private institutions or the government. It also helps to improve the inter-organizational culture and helps improve internal management and efficiency. Definition Whistle blowing is a process by which a person claims an occurrence of wrongdoing in or by an organization. Usually the person belongs to the organization and is at a personal risk himself. The allegations made may be internal (to people within the organization e.g. colleagues, subordinates etc.) or external (to people outside the organization e.g. law enforcement agencies, media, regulators etc.). U.S academics Marcia P.Miceli and Janet P.Near set the academic standard for whistleblowing in 1982 as Disclosure of organizations members (former or current) disclosure of illegal, immoral or illegitimate practices under the control of their employees to persons or organizations that may be able to effect action. They have defined whistle blowing as a four step process: A triggering event occurs involving questionable, unethical or illegal activities, and this leads to an employee to consider blowing the whistle. The employee engages in decision making, assessing the activity and whether it involves wrong doing, gathering additional information, and discussing situation with others. The employee exercises voice by blowing the whistle; alternatively the employee could leave the organization, or remain silent out of loyalty or neglect. The organizational members react to, and possibly retaliate against the whistleblower. Common Reactions Around the globe, whistle blowers have been hailed as heroes or selfless martyrs for revealing fraud and corruption in organizations and preventing potential disasters. They may relate to the cover up harmful diseases like SARS in China to the revealing of theft of millions of dollars of public money in Kenya. However, in many cases whistleblowers face severe ramifications for their actions. They end up losing their jobs and being ostracized for their activities. Some may be charged with violation of employee contracts and the dangers might be physical at extreme. It is therefore probable that a lot of people refrain from blowing the whistle due to the fear of retaliation or damaging relationships at work or private life. Utility of Whistle blowing Information revealed by whistleblowers is usually highly critical for the society. In China, Dr Jiang Yanyong possibly saved a million lives by revealing the extent to which the SARS virus had spread even though he was ordered by the authorities not to. In the corporate world, Sherron Watkins of Enron blew the whistle over the financial problems of the company internally which eventually led to the exposure of the scam and the arrest of the top officials. Whistle blowing is also important for improving the internal efficiency of the organization since the employees are the first to know about the problems and early disclosure can lead to remedy of the problem sooner. A 2002 study by KPMG found that around 25 percent of problems reported in an company in Australia was by whistleblowers while the same statistic was 44 percent in Africa. The essence of whistleblowing lies in the fact that staff are able to by-pass the line of their superiors since at times that might be the area where the problem arises and hence they are able to go outside in case they believe that the whole organization is in an improper course. Effective whistleblowing is therefore a necessity for a healthy organizational culture, good governance. Successful whistle blowing is when concerns inside the organization could be raised with confidence, properly investigated and addressed when necessary. Barriers to whistle blowing 1. Fear of retaliation One of the largest barriers in todays organizations against whistle blowing is retaliation against the disclosure. Retaliation can vary from minor harassment in certain cases to the extremity of costing ones life. In a typical case, the employee who blows the whistle would be put under pressure to rescind his words and refrain from further disclosures. Some of the common practices of retaliation are : Marginalise the employee by taking away the job duties. Blacklist the employee so that he cant gain further employment. Conduct retaliatory investigations in order to divert attention from the matter and abuse the whistleblower. Question whistle blowers professional competence, honesty and mental health. Reassign the employee so that he/she is unable to do the job At times, retaliation becomes extreme as Satyendra Dubey was murdered after he revealed corruption on a road project. 2. Legal liability There are significant legal barriers to whistle blowing in several countries. At times there are no significant laws or acts for whistle blowing(e.g. India). These include the traditional laws to respect the employer, act in his best interests etc. There may also be secret laws in institutions to punish whistle blowers and deter further whistle blowing. a. Duty of loyalty and confidentiality Many countries in Asia have is the duty of loyalty and fidelity to the employer. This usually deters an employee from expressing personal opinion or revealing internal information. The Indian Law Reform Commission has recently recognized that while a public servant might be subject to the duty of confidentiality, it doesnt extend to remain silent regarding the corrupt activities of other public servants. The public interest is better served if maladministration and corruption are exposed. b. Secret Acts In most common wealth countries the state has criminal laws prohibiting the release of military and state laws by officials and outsiders. e.g. Pakistan Officials Secret Acts, 1923 makes illegal the disclosure of any information that has been entrusted to him by confidence by any person holding office or to which he has access due the position he holds. These laws thus generate a significant barrier to anti corruption efforts and genrally prohibit disclosure of information without permisiion. In Malaysia, the opposition leader Mohd Ezan Mohd Noor was prosecuted in 2000 under the OSA for releasing police reports of corruption by high level government officials. In London, a whistle blower who revealed that the London police force had released incorrect statements regarding the shooting of an innocent man was also arrested. These laws are also used in political cases. c. Libel In many countries, defamation and libel laws are used to deter the whistle blowers. Power figures and senior officials use their power to threaten the whistle blowers as they can use the court systems to their advantage. In Singapore, National Kidney Foundation suppressed the whistle blowers from revealing wastage of money on first class tickets, excessive salaries etc by using defamation laws and forced apologies. Finally when a major media company refused to bow down, the story was fully disclosed. d. Other Laws There also exists a possibility of criminal or civil charges under laws such as trade secrets or theft. In some countries companies also require that workers sign confidentiality clauses. In Australia, an American who doubted the safety of the new Airbus 380 is facing criminal and civil charges by his ex employer after going public with the potential design flaws. 3. Cultural Barriers There are at times significant cultural barriers to whistle blowers which see whistle blowers as dobbers, sneaks or narks. Some of this comes from the abuses to informants historically. In Nazi occupied regimes, the Soviet Union, Aparthied- era South Africa, informants and anonymous denunciations were often used for maintain power. The organization culture is also equally important. The disclosure of information to outsiders can feel like a betrayal and hence whistle blowers often feel social sanctions for their disclosures. At times, even though formal laws are absent, being shunned or being side lined in the organization can place certain amount of pressure on individuals. Whistleblowers Laws and Protection Initiatives All the countries do not have a legal protection act for the whistleblowers. Legal protection for whistleblowers mostly differs on the basis of the country, state in which malpractice occurred and also the subject matter of whistleblowing. The first law that protected whistle blowers was the US Lloyd-La Follette Act of 1912. It guaranteed the right of federal employees to furnish information to Congress. According to the Act, the causes that encourage the efficiency in the service are defined as the just causes. It goes on to say that the right of employees to furnish information to either House of Congress, or to a committee or Member thereof, may not be interfered with or denied. The U.S. Whistleblowers Protect Act of 1989 (amended in 1994) was established to protect public interest disclosures which were made by federal employees. For aiding whistleblowers in the investigation and to prevent retaliatory action against them, an Office of Special Counsel (OSC) was created. But it was not very successful because of a series of hostile judicial rulings which undercut the protection that was afforded by the Act. A similar or even stronger legislation has been passed by more than 40 states in respect of State employees. The U.S. Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the aftermath of the debacle of Enron and WorldCom which provided for granting sweeping legal protection for whistleblowers in publicly traded companies. Any retaliation against a corporate whistleblower can now lead to imprisonment for up to 10 years. The Department of Labour (DoL) must complete its adjudication of cases relating to whistleblowers within 180 days. If not then whistleblower has following options he may opt to remain with DoL or ask for ade novotrial in court. Following are the remedies reinstatement, damages for compensation, pay back with interest, fees for attorney, special damages and costs. The U.K.s Public Interest Disclosure Act of 1998 is a one of its kind piece of legislation in the sense that it provides protection to employees in the public, private and non-profit sectors, which includes those working outside the U.K. It provides a framework of legal protection for individuals who disclose information so as to expose malpractice and matters of similar concern. It protects whistleblowers from persecution and dismissal. Under the law, employment tribunals have power to `freeze a dismissal and make unlimited compensation awards. The U.K. example has been followed by South Africa to provide protection to employees of all organisations through its Protected Disclosures Act of 2000. Other countries like Australia, South Korea, Canada, Argentina, Slovakia, Russia, Mexico and Nigeria have enacted or are in the process to enact whistleblowers protection legislation (but only to government employees). United Nations Convention against Corruption (2005) The most significant international instrument on whistleblowing is the United Nations Convention Against Corruption. Work on the Convention began in December 2000 and the final version was approved by the General Assembly in October 2003. It was adopted in December 2005 after it was ratified by 30 countries. As of now, it has been signed by 140 countries and ratified by 47. Article 32 on the Protection of witness, experts and victims provides for protections of witnesses and experts and their relatives from retaliation including limits on disclosure of their identities. More fundamentally, Article 33 on Protection of reporting persons envisions countries adopting protections for reporting of corruption by any person. The UN Office on Drugs and Crimes Anti-Corruption Toolkit notes that Article 3 is advancement on previous agreements such as the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime which only protects witnesses and experts. The Toolkit extensively covers whistleblowing and recommends legal and administrative measures for reporting and protection including compensation, creation of ombudsman institutions to receive complaints, the creation of hotlines, and limits on libel and confidentiality agreements. To date, only a few of the countries that have ratified the treaty have adopted comprehensive whistleblower laws and another dozen have adopted limited provisions. UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression The Un Special Rapporteur has also recognized that whistleblowing is an important aspect of freedom of expression. In 2000, Abid Hussain criticized the use of state security and other laws against individuals disclosing information in the public interest. In December 2004, UN Rapporteus Ambeyi Ligabo joined with the Special Representatives on freedom of expression and the media from the OAS and OSCE in a statement on free expression calling for national governments to adopt better protections Whistleblowers releasing information on violations of the law, on wrongdoing by public bodies, on a serious threat to health, safety or the environment, or on a breach of human rights or humanitarian law should be protected against legal, administrative or employed-related sanctions if they act in good faith. Protecting Whistleblowers in India There are no legislations in India to protect whistleblowers here. There have increasingly been the cases of corporate or political scams and which have cost taxpayers heavily including the banks and investors to the amount of thousands of crores of rupees. A Whistleblowers Protection Act is more important for India than it was for the U.S. and the U.K. It can be a strong tool for ensuring good governance in the country if worked in congruence with the Freedom of Information Act. At this moment we are in dire need of public interest groups like the ones on the lines of Government Accountability Project and the National Whistleblower Centre in the U.S., and the Public Concern At Work in the U.K. These will help in safeguarding the rights of whistleblowers rights and defend the employees against any retaliation. In the act of protecting whistleblowers, we are maybe unknowingly also protecting ourselves. In the case of legal protection also many employees might feel hesitant to, but the very existence of whistleblowers will discourage government and corporate wrongdoings to a considerable event. Based on the experiences of other countries the following set of general principles could usefully be the guidelines for the effective Indian legislation regarding the subject: With the consent of the State governments, Parliament should try and enact a single Act for all employees who work in any tier of government. This shall also include employees working in any organisation be it the private or voluntary sector. It shall also include employees of contractors, sub-contractors and agents of an organisation; former employees and overseas employees; applicants for employment, auditors and attorneys should also be covered. The Official Secrets Act should be outlawed. This will provide for a public interest defence. Also the `gagging clauses in severance or employment contracts should be nullified for public interest disclosures. It makes no sense to ask if the Acts protection should include members of such organizations as the armed forces, the police and the secret services. But it must be made sure of that the disclosures shall not harm operations or endanger the lives of the concerned personnel. Unless the Contempt of Courts Act is first amended to provide for a public interest defence, the judiciary shall remain outside its purview. The whistleblowers information about a malpractice must be substantially true, and consequently the whistleblower must act in the good faith and true spirit. In the case of the calls that are not legitimate or are anonymous the whistleblower should not be provided protection with. The period given to file a complaint must be such long so as to provide him sufficient time (say, 1 year). There should be a clear definition of what constitutes public interest disclosures. Following can be the disclosures to which protection can be provided illegal or criminal act(s), breach of regulatory law, miscarriage of justice, danger to public health or safety or property and any damage to environment, including attempts which are intended to cover up these malpractices. The Act must be constituted in such a way so as to encourage employees to first raise the matter within the organization and mandate organisations to establish proper mechanisms for this purpose. When it is not reasonable to raise the matter within the organization, or where attempts to solve the matter from within have been unsuccessful, employees who make an external disclosure in a specified way should also be protected. It remain a matter of debate that what should be the specified way. By general wisdom, apart from certain designated offices which may include SEBI, Pollution Control Boards, etc., public interest disclosures to such personalities as MPs and MLAs; employee unions; and reputed public interest groups must be protected. Disclosures made to the media may also be protected in some cases but in such a case the whistleblower must carry the burden of proof. The protection should include any and all forms of retaliation and the possible solutions could be on the same lines as in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including criminal liability for retaliation. To carry out timely adjudication of cases there should be a fast track mechanism similar to that of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Decisions have to be made on the points that whether the existing Administrative and other tribunals should be strengthened to do the job or new agencies should be created. Some Famous Cases of Whistleblowing Sherron Watkins, an accountant in Enron blew the whistle for the company. She raised suspicions of accounting improprieties to Enron Chairman, Kenneth Lay. She also warned about Jeffrey Skilling (Chief Executive Oficeer), Fastow (Chief Financial Officer) and other executives who were duping the company. The Chairman just asked an outside law firm, to investigate about it. Before Enron finally declared bankruptcy, Watkins once again informed the chairman that the financial partnerships set up by the huge Houston energy company would prove disastrous and potentially destroy Enron. Coleen Rowley, a special agent with FBI, initially served in the Omaha, Nebraska and Jackson, Mississippi Divisions. After the 2001 attacks, Rowley wrote a paper to FBI Director, Robert Mueller, explaining that the FBI HQ personnel in Washington DC had ignored the warnings given by Minneapolis, Minnesota Field Office. In May of 2002, Rowley brought some of the pre 9-11 lapses to light and testified to the Senate Judiciary Committee about some of the endemic problems faced by FBI and the intelligence community. As a result, the FBI cleared a new Office of Intelligence and expanded the FBI personnel. Frank Serpico is yet another whistleblower. He joined the New York Police Department (NYPD) as a Probationary Officer in the year 1959. In 1967, Frank made his first formal report about the widespread, systematic police corruption, but the police department failed to do anything about it. He gave a complaint to the police Commissioner and the Mayor, but they ignored him. Frustrated, Serpico exposed the NYPD wrongdoings in The New York Times in 1971. Later, he was shot in the face during a raid. None of his colleagues came to help him. Later, Frank was promoted to the rank of detective and was given a gold shield. In May 1972, Frank was awarded the NYPDs Medal of Honor for his honesty and bravery in fighting corruption. Serpico quit NYPD in 1972. Jeffrey Wignand, Vice-President for tobacco research and development at Brown Williamson became the whistleblower on Bg Tobacco, telling how the industry minimized tobaccos health and safety issues. In a 1995 CBS news interview, 60 minutes, he went on speaking about the companys knowledge of nicotines addictive properties, its reckless use of harmless additives, its quashing of research on safe cigarettes, and a variety of other abuses. He was the center witness in the US governments lawsuit against the tobacco industry, which eventually led to the $246bn federal tobacco settlement. Later, Wignand formed a non-profit organization to educate children about health issues and reduce the usage of tobacco among teenagers. Examples of Whistle blowing from India Satyendra Dubey Talk of whistle blowing in the Indian context and one of the first cases that comes to the mind is that of NHAI engineer Satyendra Dubey. Satyendra Dubey, was one of those rare young men who was completely and uncomplicatedly honest. An engineer from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and working for National Highway Authority of India, Satyendra Dubey was supervising construction of the Prime Ministers dream project in the Koderma division in Jharkhand as a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project. In August 2003 he was transferred to Gaya. At Gaya, he exposed large-scale flouting of NHAI rules regarding sub-contracting and quality control. Meanwhile, faced with the possibility of high-level corruption within the NHAI, Dubey wrote directly to the Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, detailing the financial and contractual irregularities in the project. Despite a direct request that his identity be kept secret and despite the letters sensitive content, accusing some of Dubeys su periors, the letter along with bio-data was forwarded immediately to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Dubey faced several threats following this. On November 27, 2003, Dubey was found shot dead in the suburb of A.P. Colony in Gaya while he was returning from a wedding from Varanasi. Satyendra Dubeys death sparked off widespread public protest and highlighted the need and urgency of a whistleblowing act. It exposed the high levels of unethical practices being practiced in the uppermost echelons of the ministries and the unholy nexus with the mafia. Shanmugam Manjunath Another glaring example of the apathy faced by the whistle blowers in India is that of the Indian Oil engineer Shanmugam Manjunath. Manjunath was a marketing manager for the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) who was murdered for blewing the whistle on a scheme to sell impure gasoline. An MBA from Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, Manjunath worked for IOC in Lucknow. While there, he had ordered two petrol pumps at Lakhimpur Kheri to be sealed for selling adulterated fuel for three months. On November 19, 2005, Manjunath was found dead in the backseat of his own car, his body riddled with at least six bullets. M N Vijaykumar M N Vijaykumar is an IAS officer in the southern state of Karnataka. He has a penchant for disciplining colleagues who supplement their modest salaries with bribes, kickbacks and garden-variety pilferage. He exposed serious corrupt practices at high levels. His wife, J N Jayashree, set up a website detailing her husbands efforts to fight corruption, and to safeguard her husbands life. Other Examples of Whistle blowing from Asia Yoichi Mizutani blew the whistle on a scam by Snow Brand Food Co. in 2002 while working as the president of a Japanese storage company named Nishinomiya Reizo. Snow had been mislabelling Australian beef as domestic beef so that it could benefit from the beef buy-back program of the government which was issued after an outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) in Japan. Mizutanis reward was an order from the Construction Transport Ministry company to suspend operations a suspension that lasted 16 months during investigation of the scam. Nishinomiya was eventually cleared of participation in Snows scheme. Myron A. Mehlman was the former director of toxicology and manager of Mobil Oils Environmental Health and Science Laboratories. He claimed that Mobil incorrectly reported results of his toxicological testing of Mobil products to company officials and outside agencies. Mehlman held his position from 1978 until he was fired in 1989. He supervised about 100 employees in conducting tests and safety evaluations of Mobils petrochemical products, including gasoline. Mehlman had warned that the true benzene levels in gasoline and other Mobil products posed a serious hazard to the public health and environment and that they should be reduced and that Mobil products should be modified. After his firing, Mehlman successfully sued Mobil charging that the company systematically covered up environmental and human health problems. Sibel Deniz Edmonds is a Turkish-American. She had worked as a FBI translator and founder of the National Security Whistleblowers Coalition (NSWBC). In March, 2002, she had accused a colleague of covering up illicit activity involving foreign nationals and also alleged that there were serious acts of security breaches, cover-ups, and intentional blocking of intelligence which according to her were a danger to the United States security. Following this she was fired from her position as a specialist of language at the FBIs Washington Field Office. Since that time, court proceedings on her whistleblower claims have been blocked by the assertion of State Secrets Privilege. On March 29, 2006, she was awarded the PEN/Newmans Own First Amendment Award in recognition of her defense of free speech as it applies to the written word. Marlene Garcia-Esperat (August 29, 1959 March 24, 2005 in Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines) was a Filipina whistleblower and investigative journalist who wrote a weekly anti-graft column for local newspapers. As a result of her anti-corruption work, she was murdered in her own home. Her case is significant, as it is the first in the 56 murders of Filipino journalists since 1986 for which the people ultimately responsible were identified, in addition to the people directly involved. Esperat, as former employee of the Department of Agriculture in Central Mindanao (DA-12) and Midland Review, Tacurong City columnist, exposed the alleged Jocelyn Jocjoc Bolante fertilizer funds scam, in which President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was implicated. Dr. Ramin Pourandarjani (9 June 1983 10 November 2009) was an Iranian physician who examined prisoners who were wounded or killed during the 2009 Iranian elections protests. He had reported on the state use of tortureon political prisoners. He died under suspicious circumstances on November 10, 2009, at the age of 26. Tehrans public prosecutor Abbas Dowlatabadi said Ramin Pourandarjani died of poisoning from a delivery salad laced with an overdose of blood pressure medication. The findings fueled opposition fears that he was killed because of what he knew. Pourandarjani had worked as a physician at the Kahrizak detention center. Iranian authorities earlier had claimed at various points that Pourandarjani had been injured in a car accident, committed suicide, or died of a heart attack in his sleep at the health center at the police headquarters in Tehran where he worked. The Future of Whistleblowing The following are some of the principles for whistleblowing legislation based on international best practice that should be considered when developing new legislation. The work of the OAS Working Group is also a valuable resource including the Model Law on whistleblowing developed a few years ago: Broad Coverage The law should have a broad coverage. It should apply to public and private sector employees and also those who may face retribution outside the employer-employee relationship such as consultants, former employees, temporary workers, students, benefit seekers, family members and others. It should also apply to national security cases. Protection against retribution The law should have a broad definition of retribution that covers all types of job sanctions, harassment, loss of status or benefits, and other detriments. Employees should be also to seek interim relief to return to the job while the case is pending or be allowed to seek transfers to other equivalent jobs within the organization if return to the existing one is not advisable due to possible retribution. Protection of free speech The law should recognize that there is a significant importance in free speech whistleblowing. Public interest and harm tests should be applied to each release of any information that could have been released under FOI cannot be sanctioned. Confidentiality The law should allow for whistleblowers to request that their identity should remain confidential as far as possible. However, the body should make the person aware of the problems with confidentiality and also make clear that the protection is not absolute. Waiver of liability Any act of public disclosure should be made immune for liability under other acts such as Official Secrets and libel/slander laws. An even more significant move would be to eliminate archaic Official Secrets Acts such as already has been done in New Zealand. Compensation Compensation should be broadly defined to cover all losses and place the person back at their previous situation. This should include any loss of earnings and further earnings. This loss should not be capped. There should also be provisions to pay for pain and suffering incurred because of the release and any retaliation. Rewards In some cases, whistleblowers should be rewarded for making disclosures that result in important recovery of funds or discoveries of wrongdoing. Qui Tam cases, such as have been used in the US, may be an appropriate mechanism for recoveries. Disclosure Procedures The law should set up reasonable procedures to encourage and facilitate internal procedures to disclosure wrongdoing. However, the procedures should be straightforward and easily allow for disclose outside organizations to higher bodies, legislators and the media in cases where it is likely that the internal procedure would be ineffective. There should be easy access to legal advice to facilitate disclosures and reduce misunderstandings. No sanctions for misguided or false reporting The law should not allow for criminal sanctions against whistle blowers who make false disclosures. The disclosure might have been made in good faith. In case of delibarate falsehood, normal sanctions such as a loss of job should be sufficient. Extensive training and publication The
Monday, August 19, 2019
Technology and social change go hand-in-hand with the advancement of the workforce society within the last decade. Thanks to new technological breakthroughs emerging on a regular basis, the way we view employment has changed drastically compared to those of years before us. Dating back to the 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s, Johan Gutenberg revolutionized the world as we know it today by developing the printing press. Today, we take such things for granted but it is writing that makes it possible to spread knowledge, communication, and ideas over such a wide body of population. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With the amazing developing of print, other inventions began emerging. Thanks to some amazing innovatists, the radio, television, telephone, and now today, the Internet, have all been established. Not only have these inventions altered our personal lives, but have changed the way the job industry has been run for years. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, probably the biggest change these inventions have had in our society ability to earn an education. A college degree is almost a necessity in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technologically advanced economy desperately needs those who are trained in specialized areas; ranging from analyzing molecular genetic information to programming a database for a large company. Once there was a time when steel mills and assembly lines ruled the economy. Poor, uneducated men with amazing work ethics ruled the workforce. These men, and women, worked 60 hour wor...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Nuclear Weapons Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the beginning The Atomic Bomb was constructed to end a war and save lives. Since that time fear and power have risen because of the threat of world destruction. Coming from Los Alamos, New Mexico a town that makes nuclear weapons I have a different view than most. In Los Alamos we always have protesters with big signs calling the scientist, that work at The Los Alamos National Laboratory, killers. Now when I drive by and see these signs I can not help but think of my father, stepmother, and all my neighbors, all of my friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ parents as being killers. I know and love these people and to see them called killers is a strange concept to grasp. The following will discuss nuclear weapons and what the intended use is, where and how nuclear weapons became a problem, the effect it has had on the world, the problems it has caused, what is being done about the problems. Nuclear weapons are the backbone and liberator of our great country. To put a tool used to ins ure our great country on the backburner would be a great injustice and would put our country in grave danger. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many people ask why do we still need all of these weapons or killers as they are often referred to as? They think that we have enough already and what is the point of continuing the excess. Instead of thinking of nuclear weapons as killers we should be looking at them as lifesavers. In that light I think everyone would agree that you could not put a limit of the value of life. Everybody hears the statistics about the United States having enough weapons to blow the world up three times. This may be true, however as technology advances so do weapons and you can bet other countries are not settling for the weapons they already posses. If we were to stop the production of nuclear weapons we would be alone in that effort. When we have people like Sadam Hussain in the world, which we always will, we need the protection that only nuclear weapons can provide. If people think that trying to bargain with a man like Hussain without safety net is plausible then they are hugel y mistaken. It would be like using a typewriter instead of using a computer because we have an abundance of typewriters. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be wrong to assume that a broader conception of international security makes it easier to achieve the goal of nuclear abolitionÃ¢â¬ (Cowen-Karp 6).
The Artists of the Harlem Renaissance and the Lost Generation diverged from the mainstream to begin a separate cultures. Harlem was an area in New York with an extensive African American population. During the Ã¢â¬Ë20s poets, writers and musicians like Langston Hughes, Claude Mckay and Zora Neale Hurston made the Harlem area the center of black art and culture. The lost generation was based mainly in Paris, France. It consisted of war torn men who could not re-enter society after World War I. In Europe nearly sixty two percent of men had been killed, captured or debilitated in the Great War. Famine and poverty plagued every nation. The Lost Generation was truly lost Ã¢â¬â they felt angered by the problems at home and many choose to abandon their pre-war land and values to move abroad and adapt a new culture and morals. The black artists of the post WWI era did not conform to mainstream society or even Ã¢â¬Å"regularÃ¢â¬ black society. Instead they formed their own culture aside the mainstream and the movement was dubbed the Harlem Renaissance. It was truly a coming together of black, and to some extent white, cultural figures. There was little outside influence on the Renaissance. Neither big industry, with their endless promotions to lure customers, nor the anti-prohibition, or speakeasy culture, that characterized the roaring Ã¢â¬Ë20s affected the diverse Harlem culture. Langston Hughes was a very prominent writer during the Renaissance. He was a very well cultured man who had traveled all over to places such as the USSR, Haiti and Japan. Refered to as the poet Laureate of New York, his writing was a vehicle to express social and political protest. His diverse use of Jazz and black folklore influenced many black writers of his time. He was also one of the first, along with Claude Mckay, black writers to attract a substantial white audience. Mckay was a Jamaican born poet and novelist. He was attracted to Harlem because of its immense diversity of culture. He had been oppressed and harassed during the Red Scare, a nationwide hunt for radicals, because of his status as a leftist newspaper editor. His style of writing attracted crowds of people never exposed to black culture. He Ã¢â¬Å"used traditional forms to express unfamiliar ideasÃ¢â¬ . Zora Neale Hurston was the prominent woman during the Harlem movement. She was very much involved in black heritage and southern culture.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Today, we have many youth that have decided to come out of the closet, and have been shunned by their families and peers. Many have turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with their feelings of rejection. On the other hand, many of our youth indulge in risky sexual behaviors that put them at a great risk for sexuality transmitted diseases and even suicide ideation. Community Needs The proposed prevention program will address discrimination projected at youth's who identify with being gay or lesbian in their communities.When discrimination occurs in the community, it produces stress, physical and psychological issues. Lewis, Delegated, Clarke, & Kiang (2006) article addressed how discrimination of on?s sexual identity is categorization toward their social status. Discrimination of gay or lesbian youth can also produce substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent factorization along with risky sexual behaviors that put them at risk for HIVE infection, and significant rates of school dro pout (Kernighan, Sheathes, & Abacus, 2014).In communities, there are five factors that prohibit resilience within the lesbian or gay youth. Russell, Bona, Macaroon, & Smith (201 1) stated that the Sebastian or gay youth often experience homophobia, divisions' within their own communities; inability to make sense of danger; family failure of support for sexual identity; and their internalizing of negative information about lesbian or gay youth intentions on society as a whole. Many youth are therefore left feeling alone and unaccepted by their communities in which they live in.Desired Results Outputs: The overall achievement for participating in the program Ã¢â¬Å"Yes I CanÃ¢â¬ will be the following components. 1 . Parental/caretaker acceptance Of youth's sexual orientation. 2. Stability of emotional, physical and psychological health. . Cessation of risky sexual and addictive behaviors. 4. Parental/caretaker active participation in therapy. 5. Production of positive relationships in families, peers, and school. 6. Ability to relinquish prior offenses that caused tremendous psychological and emotional pain, 7. Ability to live a life free from shame and guilt.Impacts The expected goals of the program Ã¢â¬ËYes CanÃ¢â¬ will seek to foster self- acceptance of the youth's sexual identity, promote positive self-image; emotional and psychological stability; acknowledgement of guilt producing behaviors that affect cognitive abilities while wanting to achieve positive hanged. Influential Factors The program will utilize three modalities that have been shown to provide significant reduction capabilities for the lesbian or gay youth. Cognitive behavioral therapy postulates cessation of negative behavior and substance usage.The triangular theory of love will explain the concept of what love is, while forgiveness therapy will help the youth to understand how forgiveness can benefit them emotionally, spiritually, and psychologically once they make the conscious choic e to forgive individuals who have wronged them. Parents and caretakers can empower their children to be who they are by encouraging them attend school regardless of what others say or do as long as they are not harmed. Strategies The following strategies will be utilized in the prevention program Ã¢â¬Å"Yes I CanÃ¢â¬ . 1.Community leaders and organizations to provide stringent policies for anti-gay harassment and violence in the schools. 2. Encouragement from parent/caretaker, community leaders and organizations. 3. Encouragement to stay in school. 4. Therapist/counselor understands how biases can damage the therapeutic relationship. 5. Utilization of competent providers in the assessment and counseling sectors. 6. Cultural competence. . Ethical guidelines adherence. 8. Journaling by participant's of their needs and Concerns. 9. Assess the prospect of suicide ideation through the Beck Scale. 10. Random drug screenings. 11.Explain the informed consent. 12. Obtain an active measurem ent of confidence by using the self-efficacy scale. Assumptions The prevention program goals will be to empower the youths toward self- acceptance, positive self-worth, freedom from their negative past experiences; production of positive coping mechanisms; understanding of the risk of substance abuse on their health. The program will utilize donated reverie for assessments and counseling services. Referrals will be made to area hospitals with the recommendation for evaluation of the participant in a crisis stabilization unit for suicide ideation.Incidence Reduction Formula Incidence Reduction= Decrease: Maladaptive coping, stress reduction, depression, risky sexual of anger from prior offenses, shame Guilt. Behaviors, alleviation Increase: Acceptance of sexual identity, parental/caretaker Communication, self-esteem, self-worth. Logic Model Resources Activities Outputs Short & Long Terms Outcomes Staff Trained in forgiveness therapy. Provide understanding of love for self. Trained st aff in cognitive behavioral therapy. Participant's secured from area schools, churches, & parental referrals.Community agency referrals. Parental/caretaker participation Group therapy sessions. Workbooks on discriminatory practices. Journals to write own thoughts & feelings to be addressed in therapy Drug testing Parental/caretaker involvement. Parental/caretaker acceptance of youth's sexual orientation. Developed positive self-esteem. Substance abuse alleviated. Positive support from selected peers/family Of choice. Alleviate depression & suicidal ideation. Positive cognitive and decision making skills. Positive attitude toward school and peers.Positive parental/caretaker relationships sustained. Develop and utilize voice against discrimination. Positive identity. Ability to function daily without drugs and alcohol. Healthy attitude toward life. Ability to develop and maintain healthy relationships. Ability to encourage others of the lesbian and gay community. Formative The program will use the concept of targeted mediator validation which recommends researchers to select social, psychological, and demographic variables that would be used in mediating and moderating such variables for he intervention.There will be three modalities used to advance and achieve the allocated intervention procedures. Attention will be focused on logged parental/caretaker and community participations. Relationship qualities will be viewed to assess whether they are conducive for the participant's. Conformity will be completed between the influences on the participants willingness to change negative behaviors that have caused them harm. Us m native The program Ã¢â¬Å"Yes I CanÃ¢â¬ was designed to empower the lesbian and gay youth in communities to change damaging behaviors that have stagnated heir joy in life from discrimination.