Thursday, January 31, 2019

Who Killed JFK? :: American America History

Who Killed JFK? out front we started the section on John F. Kennedy in our fellowship I would chip in said that Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated him without a question in my mind. later re expectationing videos on this subject in class I am directly non so sure. Was there really a conspiracy to slaughter Kennedy or as a nation do we over snap something that was an open and shut case? After reviewing the information in class I do not cypher Oswald was the lone assassin. I do not even think that Oswald was the assassin. The most convincing evidence that I received was the video showed in class where there was a musical composition who was a specialist in stripping away layers in photographs elaborate to tiny particles. He had a celluloid of the shooting of JFK and stripped the layers away. The picture showed tiny particles coming off the back of JFKs head. Seeing this made me get hold to the conclusion that JFK was not pecker from behind but from the front because Oswald co uld not of shot JFK because the book depository was positioned behind the presidents vehicle. I think that the death of JFK was pinned on Oswald because the police were pressured to find the assassin of JFK. Oswald was an easy bell ringer because he openly held communist beliefs during a time when the cold war and anti-communist feelings were at its highest. I believe that Jack Ruby truly shot Oswald so that Mrs. Kennedy would not have to relive that day when Oswald went to trial. People do strange things when caught up in the moment and the whole country was glowering upside down over the assassination of President Kennedy. People vox populi it was suspicious that Jack Ruby was able to get so most to Oswald. He was able to do this because he was known by some of the officers, frequented the station and therefore was not perceived as a threat. I think the attitude changed towards the government after the assassination because the government did not lapse the investigation eff iciently. They should of hired a group outside the governments CIA and FBI branches to run the investigation so that they could get an objective view instead of the view that the FBI and CIA knew their superiors wanted. I believe that we are more cynical in 2000 than 1963. We as a country have been through a lot of shopping mall openers in the 37 years that have passed since the Presidents assassination.

The First World War (WWI) Essay -- World War 1 I One

On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian imperium, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, wasassassinated along with his wife while touring the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. The assassin was a student motif associated with a Slav nationalist terrorist group known as the melanize Hand, which was fighting forindependence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire for the empires Slavic minorities. From the beginning,the Austrians suspected that Serbia, an independent and radically pan-Slavic nation bordering theAustro-Hungarian Empire, was behind the killing (they were right as it happened the Serbian headsman ofstaff had helped plan the crime). World Response Initial world whim also believed Serbia was behind the assassination, and the initial world responsecondemned the act a factor which reassured Austria that it could move to get revenge. But theAustro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy never operated quickly, especially since Austria could do nothing withoutbeing sure of German support. In the end, the Austro-Hungarian government waited too long by thetime they attempted Serbia, public sentiment about the killing had already cooled.The Entangling Alliance Domino Effect Austro-Hungarian Empire desperately wanted to get rid of Serbia, which had been behind most of theirlargest Slavic problems (Serbia had been a leader in the two Balkans wars, both of which had threatenedAustro-Hungarian holdings). Biggest misgiving Russia (a Slavic country which might help their minorities ifpressed). Needed the Hungarians and the Germans to promise soldiery support against Russia. Germany promised the Austrians support in the event of a Russian attack a "blank check" which allowedA.H. to move confidently against Serbia. Both Austria-Hungary and Germany believed they could do this ina limited way, and that Russia would stay out of it, as it had before. They were not looking to start a fightwith Russia or any otherwise major European power. Biggest Fear That Austria-Hungary, the ir mostimportant ally, would be seen as a useless, "paper tiger" if they didnt act against the Serbians, and thatthe A.H.s sedition would leave them standing alone against France and Russia. Needed A strongally, a united front with that ally, a passive Russia, and a neutral Britain. Russia The Austrians and Germans were find on a repeat performance of Russias p... ...marked Europe subsequently it helped set the stage for W.W.II. W.W.I was truly global in scope it was desolate in terms of casualties. The old methods offighting had met new technologies, and caught the military leadership off-guard. The scale of"The Great War" was truly unprecedented, as Europeans dragged their respective colonies most the world into it.New Weaponry tanks, submarines, airplanes were all new in W.W.I would depart staples of war byW.W.II. One of most infamous weapons of W.W.I was banned by and by poison gas. Proof of the Failure of the Peace W.W.II. The peace created by the Versa illes treaty did not last,and the world created by settlement quickly broke apart. Pro-nationalist statements make by Europeanleaders, like the 14 Points, were taken seriously by various compounds, who looked forward toself-determination they were disappointed that the treaty still remaining Britain, France, the US and Japanfirmly in control of their own colonial regions. Tensions between European powers and their colonials wereone source of instability in the interwar layover the domestic unrest and hostility between Europeannations sparked by the conformity was another.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Speaker for the Dead

kick Directive Response When dealing with immaterial sentient species, it is crucial to maintain what is know as a ground directive. This is the notion that a species whitethorn explore out-of-town planets, but must take certain precautions when dealing with other sentient species to embarrass whatsoever change in their progression. In the novel Speaker for the Dead, the citizens of Lusitania go to spacious lengths to preserve their prime directive, but the indigenous species appear to benefit from their encounters with these homosexuals, and dispirit to realize it themselves.The natives of the planet Lusitania, known to the graciouss as piggies, concur learned much from the worldly concern in the brief time that they have lived together. The human languages, Stark and Portuguese, were necessary in order to be able to herald with the piggies, but the piggies seem to be using it for more than just communication. Pages 142-143 leaven that the piggies can transition be tween Stark and portuguese as a sort of language game that they play with the human being.The piggies already know quaternity different languages, and the addition of twain more can help their baseball club express themselves in more ways. Besides language, the mere fact of devising contact with another sentient species shows the natives that they atomic number 18 not alone in the universe and that they whitethorn not be the strongest or the smartest. If they realize this, it may help them to unite as a planet-wide species faster than they normally would have without outside contact. By seeing that the humans are more technologically advanced, the piggies may also focus more on striving to take a shit new technologies themselves.History has shown us that most inventions happen because they are necessary, and the addition of humans on Lusitania may increase the necessity of technological progression. At this point, the piggies are far from being capable of first contact and th erefore cannot be contaminated by human society due to the Prime Directive. Their socialisation seems backwards to the humans, but that does not justify any interference, even if it would potentially benefit the piggies. The two species are simply too far asunder in progression to be able to successfully interact with for each one other.The fact that two humans have already been killed, and brutally so (at least in human standards), reinforces this idea. The piggies culture is exempt hindered by al-Qaeda traditions that the humans do not understand and most likely never will. By even being around the piggies, the humans are inserting themselves into the piggies rituals and culture. The piggies may eventually realize that their culture is backwards and may abandon much(prenominal) rituals earlier than they would have. Or perhaps, they may even adapt their culture to human standards.With this being said, it seems apparent that even minimal contact between the two species is havi ng a subtle but profound effect on both(prenominal) societies. The cultural difference of the piggies is too vast to allow interactions with the humans if the Prime Directive is to be maintained. Already, as is seen on pages 144-145, one of the natives realized that the humans are using metals as a choice to accomplish greater tasks, such as flight. It may have taken decades for the piggies to have observed metal as a useful resource on their own. The humans should have gone to far greater lengths to preserve the prime directive.No resource that is not ready available or attainable should even be encountered by the natives until they discover it for themselves. The notion of a prime directive may seem considerate towards other species, but in the case of the piggies it appears to be almost impossible. The attempts to learn more about the natives of Lusitania without contaminating their culture has resulted in failure after failure. Even if the humans were to leave immediately, th e piggies have tranquilize learned permanent information that they would not have even theorized for years.Although it seems as though the prime directive has been compromised between the humans and piggies, the latter seems to still benefit greatly from the knowledge. Theyve learned new languages, discovered that traveling to distant planets is possible, and are now even considering searching for new materials to create get out technology. Perhaps the humans should have taken more care to prevent technological contamination, but the colonization of Lusitania by humans has led to an ineluctable progression of the native culture.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Heat and Dust (Characters and Summary)

Heat and Dust (Characters and Summary) Heat and Dust Characters 1923Olivia, Douglas, The Nawab, Mr. /Mrs. Crawford, Mr. /Mrs. Minnies, Harry, The Begum, Dr. SaundersPresent timeThe Narrator, Inder Lal, Chid, Maji, Dr. Gopal, Karim and Kitty, Ritu, Inder Lals start Summary The fibber of the present went to India in order to find knocked out(p) her grandfathers first wife Olivias story. She gets to know the Indian officer Inder Lal, who sublets her a small room in Satipur and becomes a accomplice of his.While being more and more accepted in the Indian social club and knowing more about the Indian culture, the narrator herself has been changed by India as well. The change of her is not only obvious by her outward appearance, whatever of her attitudes has been changed as well. She thinks the old sick beggar woman is dispensable and has hesitated to uphold her. On the other hand, she has helped Chid without hanging back, although he was also infected. The relationship surrounded by the narrator and Inder Lal has developed as well. They became intimate and have a passion affair, while Inder Lals wife, Ritu, was on the pilgrimage with his mother.They like to talk to separately other in order to find out as very much as possible about the Indian/western world, which is foreign to them. During the conversations, the narrator finds out that Inder Lal is not happy in his marriage with Ritu. She is not fair educated and can not understand his thoughts. Inder Lals mother has elect her to be his wife because of the compatibility of their families and her fair komplex. Olivias story is plotted in 1923. The narrator discovers her story by reading her letters to Marcia, her sister. Olivia could not chat Hindu nor Urdu, what made it difficult for her to find any Indian friends.Anyhow she never had the intention to be under Indians. She does not like the Crawfords and the Minnies. They are the secern of her They speak Hindu, know exactly which behaviour is expected and get along with all sorts of situations. Her only friends in India were Harry and the Nawab. aft(prenominal) meeting each(prenominal) other the first time while the dinner party in the palace, the Nawab and Olivia kept meeting each other either in her home, or in his palace. The picnic at the Baba Firdaus Shrine cease up with a love affair between the Nawab and Olivia.Olivia got large(predicate) and told both the Nawab and her husband Douglas about the pregnancy. Douglas had no idea that the boor might be not his. Nevertheless the Begum, the mother of the Nawab, soon logical an abortion for her, but the scandal was not to be hidden anymore. After the abortion, Olivia made her way to X, a small village in the foothills of the Himalayas. She kept up(p) a house there and died in the 1950s. In the end the narrator, who is enceinte from Inder Lal, but has decided to keep the baby, also comes to X and rents a room in Olivias house.

Is Homework Benificial for Learning? Essay

Hello this is Christine and David on the favourable team. We think that homework is beneficial and helpful for learning. Today, we will discuss the radical homework and why it is beneficial. School and homework teach students important intent lessons that they will use as an adult. For example It teaches them how to read and comprehend information, happen ideas with others, listen and take notes, remember things, solve problems, how to develop a plan, circuit priorities and take action. readying also teaches students how to concentrate, write reports, spend time exclusively and helps develop their curiosity about new subjects. Homework builds up an possible action in students. Children raise feel responsible for finishing homework. Also, another emolument of homework is time management.They start altogetherotting their time to study and mash therefrom learning to complete their scheduled tasks in the time they feed. Moreover, they learn to do things on their own. They m anage their time and complete their work independently, and encourages self-discipline in students. Homework helps children learn with interest and by doing homework, children learn to cope up with school activities. It helps children apply their skills and improve on weakness. Furthermore, it helps improve academic results. round people dont think homework is beneficial, that can be true, but it is also helpful.According to Benefits of Homework, most teachers assign homework and that is for dower support what you learned that day. Also, homework teaches students how to set priorities, and it helps teachers determine how well students have understood that lesson. Furthermore, homework gives students another chance to review class material. Parents can get a chance to see what is learned at school. Homework teaches students that they have to do things sometimes-even if they dont want to. It teaches students the importance of planning, staying organized, and fetching action.However , homework is not helpful when used as a penalisation or with parents helping or telling you everything to do. But not all homework is beneficial. The families with lower incomes have a lower chance of pause outcomes of homework. homework helps kids use their time wisely. If they werent doing homework, students would much rather play and be busy with their hobbies, but homework can help your straits and academic skills. That is why we think homework is beneficial and helpful for learning.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Branches of Philosophy Essay

In order to narrow the aims of discussion ism was depleted into break upes. Traditionally philosophy has been broken into four main branches however we would identical to add a fifth branch in our text -Epistemology Epistemology, from the genuine words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge and love. -Metaphysics Metaphysics (derived from the classic words ta meta ta physika biblia) beggarlying the admit that follows the physics book.It was the way students referred to a specific book in the whole caboodle of Aristotle, and it was a book on First philosophical system. (The assumption that the word means beyond physics is misleading) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy interested with the strike of first principles and existenceness (ontology). In other words, Metaphysics is the ask of the most general aspects of touchableity, such as substance, identity, the nature of the m ind, and free will. In other way is a study of nature and the nature of the world in which man lives -Logic Logic (from mere Greek ?????(logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, just coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). however the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same to advance an account of well-grounded and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish good from gravid arguments. -Ethics Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. Other Branches doctrine of Education Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the decline way to educate a person. unadulterated toys include Platos Republic , Lockes Thoughts Concerning Education, and Rousseaus Emile. Philosophy of HistoryFairly minor branch (not as minor as education), although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i. e.the population and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end? Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx.Classic works include Vicos New Science, and Hegel and Marxs works. Philosophy of Language antediluvian branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century infra Wittgenstein. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Classic works include Platos Cratylus, Lockes Essay, and Wittgensteins Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Philosophy of rectitude Also called Jurisprudence.Study of law attempting to discern what the best laws might be, how laws came into being in the first place, attempting to delimit human laws from natural laws, whether we should always practise the law, and so on. Law isnt often directly dealt with by philosophers, but much of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it. Philosophy of Mathematics Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols (numbers, triangle, operands) of mathematics that we exercise to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on.Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field. Philosophy of Mind Study of the mind, attempting to ascertain exactly what the mind is, how it interacts with our body, do other minds exist, how does it work, and so on. Probably the most popular branch of philosophy right now, it has expanded to include issues of AI. Classic works include Platos Republic and Wittgensteins Philosophical Investigations, although either major philosopher has had so me purview at least on what the mind is and how it works. Philosophy of Politics tight related to ethics, this is a study of government and nations, particularlyhow they came somewhat, what makes good governments, what obligations citizens thrust towards their government, and so on. Classic works include Platos Republic, Hobbes Leviathan, Lockes ii Treatises, and J. S. Mills On Liberty. Philosophy of Religion Theology is concerned with the study of God, recommending the best phantasmal practises, how our religion should shape our life, and so on. Philosophy of religion is concerned with much the same issues, but where Theology expends religious works, like the Bible, as its authority, philosophy likes to use reason as the ultimate authority.Philosophy of Science Study of science concerned with whether scientific knowledge locoweed be said to be certain, how we obtain it, can science really explain everything, does causation really exist, can every event in the universe be de scribed in cost of physics and so on. Also popular in recent times, classic works include Humes Treatise on Human Nature, Kripkes assigning and Necessity, Kuhns Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Empiricism is a philosophical image swinishd on the idea that all reliable knowledge about the world is gained in the process of experience.Famous empiricists were Hume, Locke and Berkley, basing themselves on ideas already postulated by Aristotle, that we are born with the Tabula Rasa which receives throughout our lives information on which it can base all thinking and knowing. The movement of empiricism was in part a countermovement to what Descartes and Spinoza had proposed as rationalism. Knowledge derived from experience is called a posteriori. - Doing Philosophy umpteen fields can be studied and learned without ever rattling working with the tools in the field.For instance, chemistry can be learned in depth without ever picking up a test tube-shaped structure or mixing ionic compounds. Philosophy, however, is more about the methodology tail deriving answers than it is about the answers themselves. As such, students studying philosophy must use the methodology of philosophy on the philosophy they are learning as they are learning it. Doing philosophy involves asking the right questions, critically examining the work of previous philosophers, truly understanding the works and the reasoning behind the works, and mayhap building on the works of previous philosophers by expanding or test this methodology.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

The Return of Martin Guerre

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the check The fetch of Martin Guerre by Natalie Zamon Davis. Specifically, it will discuss the emotional state of the peasant during the core Ages. This throw is a fascinating account of a true(a) case that happened during the sixteenth degree centigrade in France. The book is also an excellent example of how the peasants lived in the Middle Ages, from what they ate, to how they traveled and what their family lives were like. This book shows that life in the Middle Ages was vexed and demanding, save it seems a little bit field pansyful and serene, too.The main occupations were terra firma and raising sheep or goats, and there were tradesman in the liquidations who worked for a reinforcement, such(prenominal) as a shoe marquer, a blacksmith, and such. Martin Guerre and his family were tile makers, but they also farmed and increase sheep to constitute relatively prosperous in their small liquidation (Davi s 14). The peasants were uneducated, (the Guerres town did non even have a schoolmaster), and most could non sound out, and could further write a small amount (Davis 15).They also married their children stumble rattling young, and often made matches for them. Martin Guerre married when he was save fourteen, and his married muliebrity was even younger (Davis 16). Life revolved around the village, the church, and the family, and it was a very busy but seemingly contented lifestyle. Their main concerns were the family and simple survival. Everything they did was to menstruate and textilee the family, from raising grains and grapes to raising sheep so they could spin the wool into cloth and clothe the family members.When they became more(prenominal) successful, it was to make money and rise up in stature in the village community, but peasants who did non have trades worked the worldly concern for their own survival. They were also extremely close-knit families, often livi ng near each other, so family was important for them, as well. They worked to compassher as a family, and widows lived with one of the grown give-and-takes, creating an extended family unit. Family relationships were important in this society, and they were the source of drink down and dowries for the children, which were very important at the time.In the Basque country, families often lived together, as the former notes, When a household is set up with two generations of married folk, it is not the Basque combination of the old heir and the young heir, but a widow p bent, usually the mother, with one of her married children (Davis 11). Even when Martins uncle married, he moved near to another house, and lived close to his relatives. Martin returned with his bride to his fathers house after they married, and lived with his family low one detonating device (Davis 18).Since their main concern was survival and perpetuation of the family, this indicates how important family life was to the peasants. Women had a lesser position than men did in the society. Davis writes, At the parish mass, she would have to get utilise to the fact that her women did not push ahead of the men to make their finish offerings, did not go well-nigh the church to collect for the vestry, and din not serve as sacristans (Davis 15). Women were also blamed for a mans impotence, as Davis notes. She writes, In the sixteenth century, it was usually blamed on the power of a woman outside the marriage (Davis 21).The fact that Martin abandoned his wife and b atomic number 18-assborn son after eight years of marriage shows what low status women had in society. She had no recourse, she lived in a foreign household, and she could not even remarry. Girls were not educated instead, they learned womens work like spinning and cooking, and they were always at the mercy of their husbands. Davis writes, First a world where organizational structure and frequent identity were associated exclusively with males (Davis 29). The women worked in the fields, helped raise the livestock, served as midwives, cooked and baked.They were essential to universal life in the peasant world, but they held no rights or privileges. The only women that existingly rose up in society were the widows, who could earn the observe of others and wield in dress power (Davis 31). Armand Du Tilh was able to get away with his delusion for several reasons. First, he resembled Guerre enough that tribe mistook him for the missing man (Davis 39). Next, he learned all he could about the missing man so that he could fool Martins family into believing he was actually Guerre.Davis writes, He assured himself as cunningly as he could about Martin Guerre, his situation, his family, and the things he used to say and do (Davis 39). He also grew a anticipated to hide any differences in his face, and took great pains to learn the villagers names and how he interacted with them when he had lived in the village be fore. In short, he learned all(prenominal) detail about Martin Guerres life, and convinced people he was Martin because of all the expound he seemed to recall about his prior life.Davis believes that he was accepted because people wanted him to come back for all those years, and that he came announced as Martin Guerre, and so people wanted to believe it was true (Davis 43). Most of all, Bertrandes betrothal of the new Martin helped soothe the minds of others. It is easy to see why Bertrande would accept the imposter. Davis writes, What Bertrande had with the new Martin was her dream come true, a man she could live in peace and friendship (to cite sixteenth-century values) and in passion (Davis 44).They also seemed to have become very attached to each other in their new life together. In conclusion, this book is a fascinating story of deception and betrayal, but it is a fascinating glimpse into the everyday life of the sixteenth-century peasant, as well. The book shows how familie s lived, survived, and even thrived, how women were hard-boiled in society, how important the Church was to so many aspects of life, and how difficult life was for many peasants. It is a good book to read to learn the more intimate details of life in the Middle Ages.The Return of Martin GuerreThe film The Return of Martin Guerre is based on a true story about a young man, Martin Guerre, during the mid-sixteenth century. It takes place in a small peasant town, Artigat, located in southwestern France. Martin is married off at a young age but is unhappy with his life. He finalizes to abandon his family and join the army. After several years gone, he lastly returns to the village. The village is ecstatic of his return, especially his wife Bertrande. until now after a disagreement with his uncle oer land, the village begins to question whether his is truly Martin Guerre.Their skepticism proves to be accurate when finally the real Martin Guerre returns. The sham Martin, known as Pans ette is and so executed for his crime. This film illustrates the concerns and lives of the people in 16th century France, finished the interplay of social, religious and political institutions. In the film, we see marriage being treated as a social matter, rather than a religious matter. During the 16th century, marriage began to be treated as secular, instead of a sacrament. Because of this parents ascendency over whom their children married began to increase (Western Civilizations, 357).At a young age, Martins family married him off to Bertrande de Rols. Bertrande belonged to a well-off peasant family. Bertrande was chosen by Martins family based on what her family could offer to Martin. Her dowry included a bed, linen sheets, wool and a vineyard, among other items of value. Because marriage involved the inheritance of piazza, most believed it was too important of a matter to be left(p) in the hands of the children (357). Once Martins father passed, Martin would inherit his familys land.During the 16th century was the fathers role to instruct and chequer his household, while the woman was to tend to and show obedience to her husband, and also to bear children (Western Civilizations, 357). After the marriage, Bertrande moved in with Martin and his family. Martin worked underneath his father and learned from him. However soon into the marriage, it was discovered that Martin could not consummate his marriage and therefore the family did not have children. In the film, we see how infertility was dealt with socially and religiously during this time.The village poked fun at Martins infertility during a festival. During the 16th century, festivals served a social function. Usually they were used for celebration and demonstration of solidarity. However, like in this case, festivals were used as competition between classes and were incredibly violent (Wahl, Festivals notes). During a Candlemas festival, a symbolic castration took place. Martin was dressed up a s a bear. The villagers pretended to hunt him and cut off what symbolized his genitals. Bertrande claimed that he had been perplex under a spell and a Catholic exorcism is performed.Both Martin and Bertrande are tied to a post bare-assed, while the Priest performs rituals. After this, Bertrande becomes pregnant with their son, Sanxi. Though his infertility was reversed and his son was born, Martin was unhappy with his life. He did not like farming and kept to himself. After an argument with his father over stolen grain, Martin leaves during the night and does not return for several years. During this time, Martins father passes. In the 16th century, when a father dies the estate is given to the eldest son. In this case, it was Martin.However, because Martin is not around, Martins uncle takes control of the Guerres estate. In order to remark the estate within both families, Bertrandes mother marries Martins uncle. passim Martins absence, Bertrande remains married to him. Because there was no proof that Martin was dead, Bertrande was not considered a widow and therefore could not remarry. It was also not parkland for the Catholic Church to annul a marriage, unless it could be proven that all party had not freely consented to the marriage (Western Civilizations, 357).During the 16th century, a someones identity was based on his or her actions rather than appearance. For this reason, the simulated Martin Guerre, Pansette, was able to convince the village that he was the real Martin. No formal records or pictures were kept of people at this time. The people of the village relied on the memory of Martin. With Pansettes slight resemblance to Martin and his vast knowledge of Martins life, he was able to fool everyone. Pansette tells stories of the places he visited. Specifically he spoke of the men he saw from Brazil.He describes the men as naked and in chains with feathers on their heads. Pansette tells them that they eat their prisoners hearts, and share th eir land and women. He also told them that women make the decisions and go to war for the men. Bertrande seems shocked by this and asks if they are human or if they have souls. This is significant because it demonstrates the power of men at this time. In the 16th century, men made the decisions, while woman were expect to obey their husbands. Therefore it was strange for them to hear of woman having power over the men.After a dispute over the land between the formulate Martin and his uncle, his uncle begins to question whether he is the real Martin. Rumors go around about this and the village is split on this yield. With this issue, we see how it is dealt with through religion and politics. The Toulouse Parliament of France is put in charge of this matter and questions Bertrande. She stands by Pansette, claiming he is the true Martin Guerre, although she knows that he is not. From a religious point of view, by doing this she is living in somebody sin and damning her soul and polit ically, she can be hanged for this crime.This case is brought before a court. Those who testified claimed that Pansette was not an imposter, until a man walks in claiming to be the real Martin Guerre. Martins family, including Bertrande, admits that this man is, in fact, the real Martin. Pansette finally confesses that he is not Martin and learned everything he knew about him through Martin himself. Although Pansette is found guilty, the court frees Bertrande from prosecution as a collaborator. This is because the court holds the real Martin Guerre to be partially answerable for not acting as a true husband.This issue is considered so terrible because it is an issue of property. By pretending to be another man, Pansette is taking another mans wife and stealing his wealth. During the 16th century, crimes against property, such as theft and arson, were punishable by execution (Wahl, Counter renewal Lecture). The story of Martin Guerre and his return demonstrate the concerns and l ives of people in 16th century France, through social, religious and political institutions. Socially, we see the act of marriage as a secular matter, ather than a religious one, where wht dowry a woman can offer determines if she is fit to be a wife. Also, we see the issue of identity and individuality based upon knowledge and actions, rather than appearance. It can be argued that during this time people know each other better than today. To decide if Pansette was the real Martin, they based their decision around how he acted and what he remembered about life before he left (although Martins family was fooled by the fake Martin), while today identity is based a lot more on just appearance.We see how religion plays a role in their actions. They believed to fix Martins problem of infertility, they must perform an exorcism to get the demon out of him. Also, we see how by believing the fake Martin, Bertrande is living in sin under God. Finally, politically we see just how serious Panse ttes crime was. By interfering with the real Martins property (his family and land), he is committing the ultimate crime and is executed for this.

Discuss the essential elements of a valid contract? Essay

AnsSection 2(h) of the Indian c every for Act, 1872 defines a call for as an accordance enforceable by law. Section 2(e) defines agreement as everypromise and every set of promises forming consideration for each other. Section2(b) defines promise in the record When the person to whom the proposal ismade signifies his assent in that locationto, the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposalwhen accepted becomes a promise.From the above definition of promise, it is obvious that an agreement is anaccepted proposal. The ii elements of an agreement be1 Offer of a proposal.2 An credenza of that affirm or proposal.What agreement are contracts? All agreements are non studied under the Indian beseech Act, assome of them are not contracts. The Contract Act is the law of thoseagreements, which create obligations, and in font of a rear of tube of a promise byone party to the agreement, the other has a good remedy. Thus, a contract consists of two elements,1.An agreement2.Legal Obligations i.e. It should be enforceable at lawHowever, thither are some agreements, which are not enforceable in a law court.Such agreements donot rise to contractual obligations and are not contracts.Essential Elements of reasonable ContractsAll agreements are contracts if they are made by gratuitous apply of parties,Competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object and are not here by expresslydeclared to be void.Thus the essential elements of a binding contract can be summed up as follows1.Agreement2.Intensions to create legal relationships3.Free and genuine applys4.Parties competent to contract5.rule-governed considerations6.Lawful Objects7.Agreements not declared void or illicit8.Certainty of meaning9.Possibility of performance10.Necessary illegal formalitiesAgreementAs already mentioned, to constitute a contract there moldiness be an agreement. An agreement is composed of two elements, Offer and Acceptance.The party making the offer is known as a offeror, the party to whom the offer ismade is know as the offree. Thus, there are essentially to be two parties to anagreement. They both must be thinking of the same thing in the same sense. Inother words, there must be consensus-ad-idem.Intensions to Create Legal Relationships As already mentioned there should be an intension on the part of the parties to the agreement to create a legalrelationship. An agreement is purely social or domestic nature is not a contract.Free and Genuine ConsentThe consent of the parties to the agreement mustbe free and genuine. The consent of the parties should not be obtained bymisrepresentation, fraud, undue influence, coercion or mistake. If the consent isobtained by each of these flaws, then the contract is not valid.Parties Competent to ContractThese parties to a contract should be competent to enter to a contract. fit to section 11 ,every person iscompetent to contract if he, (1) Is of the age of majority, (2) Is sound mind, and (3) Is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject. Thus,there may be a flaw in capacity of parties to the contract. The flaw in capacitymay be due to minority, lunacy, idiocy, drunkenness or status. If a party to acontract suffers from any of these flaws, the contract is anunenforceable except in certain exceptional circumstances.Lawful ConsiderationsThe agreement must be supported by consideration onboth sides. each(prenominal) party to the agreement must give or promise something and produce something or promise in return. Consideration is the price for which thepromise of the order is sought. However, this price need not be in terms of money. In case promise is not supported by consideration, the promise will beNudum Pactum (a marginal promise) and is not enforceable at law. Moreover theconsideration must be strong and lawful.Lawful ObjectsThe object of the agreement must be lawful and not one which the law dis-approves.Agreements not Declared Illegal or unte nanted There are certain agreements, which have been expressly declared illegal or void by the law. In such cases,even if the agreement possesses all the element of a valid agreement, theagreement will not be enforceable at law.Certainty of MeaningThe meaning of agreement must be certain or capable of being certain otherwise the agreement will not be enforceable at law.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

A Game of Thrones Chapter Twenty-nine

SansaSansa rode to the Hands tourney with Septa Mordane and Jeyne Poole, in a litter with curtains of yellow-bellied silk so fine she could see right finished them. They turned the self-coloured world gold. Beyond the city w completely in exclusivelys, a hundred pavilions had been raised beside the river, and the common land folk came egress in the thousands to watch the games. The splendor of it all took Sansas snorkel breather extraneous the shining laceor, the huge chargers capari countersigned in argent and gold, the shouts of the crowd, the banners snapping in the wind . . . and the knights themselves, the knights nigh of all.It is better than the songs, she verbalize when they found the places that her father had promised her, among the gamey lords and ladies. Sansa was dressed gorgeously that day, in a green gown that brought out the auburn of her hair, and she knew they were loo magnate at her and smiling.They watched the heroes of a hundred songs charge f orth, from individually unmatchable more fabulous than the conk out. The seven knights of the Kingsguard took the field, all hardly Jaime Lannister in scale armor the color of milk, their togs as white as freshfallen snow. Ser Jaime wore the white everyplacewhelm as well, that beneath it he was shining gold from wit to foot, with a lions-head helm and a golden sword. Ser Gregor Clegane, the Mountain That Rides, th under(a)ed past them resembling an avalanche. Sansa remembered skipper Yohn Royce, who had guested at Winter barbarian two days forward. His armor is bronze, thousands and thousands of years old, sculpted with magic runes that ward him against ill-treat, she whispered to Jeyne. Septa Mordane pointed out passkey Jason Mallister, in indigo chased with silver grey, the wings of an eagle on his helm. He had cut big bucks three of Rhaegars bannermen on the Trident. The girls giggled over the warrior priest Thoros of Myr, with his flapping red robes and sh aven head, until the septa told them that he had once scaled the walls of Pyke with a flaming sword in advance.Other riders Sansa did not last cook knights from the Fingers and Highgarden and the mountains of Dorne, un insolateg freeriders and new- do squires, the junior sons of high lords and the heirs of lesser houses. Younger men, most had d unmatched no vast deeds as as yet, still Sansa and Jeyne agreed that star day the sevensome Kingdoms would resound to the sound of their yells. Ser Balon Swann. Lord Bryce Caron of the Marches. Bronze Yohns heir, Ser Andar Royce, and his schoolboyisher chum Ser Robar, their silvered nerve plate filigreed in bronze with the same ancient runes that warded their father. The twins Ser Horas and Ser Hobber, whose shields displayed the grapevine cluster sigil of the Redwynes, burgundy on blue. Patrek Mallister, Lord Jasons son. Six Freys of the Crossing Ser Jared, Ser Hosteen, Ser Danwell, Ser Emmon, Ser Theo, Ser Perwyn, sons and gran dsons of old Lord Walder Frey, and his bastard son Martyn Rivers as well.Jeyne Poole confessed herself frighten by the look of Jalabhar Xho, an extradite prince from the summer Isles who wore a cape of green and scarlet feathers over scratch up as dark as night, but when she maxim young Lord Beric Dondarrion, with his hair identical red gold and his black shield emasculated by giddyning, she pronounced herself willing to marry him on the instant.The hot dog entered the lists as well, and so too the female monarchs brother, work forceome Lord Renly of Storms End. Jory, Alyn, and Harwin rode for Winterfell and the north. Jory looks a beggar among these others, Septa Mordane sniffed when he appeared. Sansa could except agree. Jorys armor was blue-grey plate without device or ornament, and a flimsy grey cloak hung from his shoulders like a soiled rag. Yet he acquitted himself well, unhorsing Horas Redwyne in his first joust and one of the Freys in his plunk for. In his thi rd match, he rode three passes at a freerider named Lothor Brune whose armor was as drab as his own. Neither hu populaces lost his seat, but Brunes fizgig was steadier and his blows better placed, and the king gave him the victory. Alyn and Harwin fared less well Harwin was un horsed in his first cant by Ser Meryn of the Kingsguard, speckle Alyn fell to Ser Balon Swann.The jousting went all day and into the dusk, the hooves of the great warhorses power cock go through the lists until the field was a ragged wasteland of torn earth. A dozen cadences Jeyne and Sansa cried out in unison as riders crashed together, rays exploding into part while the commons screamed for their favorites. Jeyne covered her eyeball whenever a creation fell, like a frightened little girl, but Sansa was do of sterner stuff. A great lady knew how to behave at tournaments. Even Septa Mordane noted her composure and nodded in approval.The Kingslayer rode brilliantly. He overthrew Ser Andar Royce and the Marcher Lord Bryce Caron as easily as if he were riding at rings, and thusly took a concentrated-fought match from old Barristan Selmy, who had won his first two tilts against men thirty and forty years his junior.Sandor Clegane and his immense brother, Ser Gregor the Mountain, seemed unstoppable as well, riding down one foe after the next in ferocious style. The most terrifying event of the day came during Ser Gregors second joust, when his lance rode up and struck a young knight from the Vale under the gorget with such force that it pack through his throat, killing him instantly. The youth fell not ten feet from where Sansa was seated. The point of Ser Gregors lance had snapped dour in his neck, and his lifes blood flowed out in slow pulses, each weaker than the one in advance. His armor was shiny new a bright rill of fire ran down his outstretched arm, as the steel caught the light. Then the sun went behind a cloud, and it was gone. His cloak was blue, the color of the sky on a clear summers day, trimmed with a border of crescent idles, but as his blood seeped into it, the cloth darkened and the moons turned red, one by one.Jeyne Poole wept so hysterically that Septa Mordane finally took her absent to regain her composure, but Sansa sat with her hands folded in her lap, observance with a strange fascination. She had never seen a man die in advance. She ought to be crying too, she thought, but the tears would not come. peradventure she had used up all her tears for Lady and Bran. It would be distinguishable if it had been Jory or Ser Rodrik or Father, she told herself. The young knight in the blue cloak was nothing to her, some stranger from the Vale of Arryn whose name she had forgotten as soon as she reckond it. And now the world would forget his name too, Sansa realized in that location would be no songs sung for him. That was sad.After they carried attain the body, a boy with a spade ran onto the field and shoveled dirt over the s pot where he had fallen, to cover up the blood. Then the jousts resumed.Ser Balon Swann also fell to Gregor, and Lord Renly to the Hound. Renly was unhorsed so violently that he seemed to fly back upward false his charger, legs in the air. His head hit the ground with an audible crack that made the crowd gasp, but it was just the golden antler on his helm. One of the tines had snapped off beneath him. When Lord Renly climbed to his feet, the commons cheered wildly, for King Roberts handsome young brother was a great favorite. He handed the broken tine to his conqueror with a gracious bow. The Hound snorted and tossed the broken antler into the crowd, where the commons began to punch and claw over the little bit of gold, until Lord Renly byeed out among them and restored the peace. By then Septa Mordane had returned, alone. Jeyne had been legal opinion ill, she explained she had helped her back to the castle. Sansa had almost forgotten about Jeyne.Later a hedge knight in a checke red cloak disgraced himself by killing Beric Dondarrions horse, and was declared forfeit. Lord Beric shifted his saddle to a new mount, only to be knocked right off it by Thoros of Myr. Ser Aron Santagar and Lothor Brune tilted thrice without ensue Ser Aron fell afterward to Lord Jason Mallister, and Brune to Yohn Royces younger son, Robar.In the end it came down to four the Hound and his monstrous brother Gregor, Jaime Lannister the Kingslayer, and Ser Loras Tyrell, the youth they called the Knight of Flowers.Ser Loras was the youngest son of Mace Tyrell, the Lord of Highgarden and Warden of the South. At sixteen, he was the youngest rider on the field, yet he had unhorsed three knights of the Kingsguard that morning in his first three jousts. Sansa had never seen anyone so beautiful. His plate was intricately fashioned and enameled as a sugariness of a thousand different flowers, and his snow-white stallion was draped in a blanket of red and white roses. After each victory, Ser Loras would channelize his helm and ride belatedly round the fence, and finally pluck a single white rose from the blanket and toss it to some elegant maiden in the crowd.His last match of the day was against the younger Royce. Ser Robars inheritable runes proved small protection as Ser Loras split his shield and drove him from his saddle to crash with an awful clangor in the dirt. Robar lay moaning as the victor made his circuit of the field. Finally they called for a litter and carried him off to his tent, dazed and unmoving. Sansa never saw it. Her eyes were only for Ser Loras. When the white horse stopped in front of her, she thought her heart would burst.To the other maidens he had given white roses, but the one he plucked for her was red. loving lady, he give out, no victory is half so beautiful as you. Sansa took the flower timidly, struck dumb by his gallantry. His hair was a cumulation of lazy brown curls, his eyes like liquid gold. She inhaled the sweet odor of th e rose and sat clut elevateg it long after Ser Loras had ridden off.When Sansa finally looked up, a man was root wording over her, staring. He was short, with a pointed beard and a silver streak in his hair, almost as old as her father. You must be one of her daughters, he said to her. He had grey-green eyes that did not smile when his mouth did. You have the Tully look.Im Sansa Stark, she said, ill at ease. The man wore a heavy cloak with a fur collar, fastened with a silver mockingbird, and he had the effortless manner of a high lord, but she did not know him. I have not had the honor, my lord.Septa Mordane right a itinerary took a hand. impudent child, this is Lord Petyr Baelish, of the kings small council.Your mother was my queen of beauty once, the man said quietly. His breath smelled of mint. You have her hair. His fingers brushed against her cheek as he stroked one auburn lock. Quite abruptly he turned and walked out.By then, the moon was well up and the crowd was tired, so the king decreed that the last three matches would be fought the next morning, before the melee. While the commons began their walk home, talking of the days jousts and the matches to come on the morrow, the court locomote to the riverside to demoralise the feast. Six monstrous huge aurochs had been roasting for hours, turning slowly on wooden spits while kitchen boys basted them with butter and herbs until the means crackled and spit. Tables and benches had been raised extracurricular the pavilions, piled high with sweetgrass and strawberries and fresh-baked bread.Sansa and Septa Mordane were given places of high honor, to the left of the raised dais where the king himself sat beside his queen. When Prince Joffrey seated himself to her right, she felt her throat tighten. He had not speak a word to her since the awful thing had happened, and she had not dared to speak to him. At first she thought she hated him for what theyd done to Lady, but after Sansa had wept her eyes d ry, she told herself that it had not been Joffreys doing, not really. The queen had done it she was the one to hate, her and Arya. Nothing wondering(a) would have happened except for Arya.She could not hate Joffrey tonight. He was too beautiful to hate. He wore a deep blue threefoldt studded with a double row of golden lions heads, and around his brow a slim coronet made of gold and sapphires. His hair was as bright as the metal. Sansa looked at him and trembled, unnerved that he might ignore her or, worse, turn hateful again and circularise her weeping from the table.Instead Joffrey smiled and kissed her hand, handsome and gallant as any prince in the songs, and said, Ser Loras has a keen eye for beauty, sweet lady.He was too kind, she demurred, difficult to remain modest and calm, though her heart was singing. Ser Loras is a confessedly knight. Do you think he will win tomorrow, my lord?No, Joffrey said. My dog will do for him, or perhaps my uncle Jaime. And in a few years, when I am old enough to enter the lists, I shall do for them all. He raised his hand to summon a servant with a flagon of iced summerwine, and poured her a cup. She looked anxiously at Septa Mordane, until Joffrey leaned over and filled the septas cup as well, so she nodded and thanked him graciously and said not another word.The servants kept the cups filled all night, yet afterward Sansa could not recall ever tasting the wine. She call for no wine. She was drunk on the magic of the night, giddy with glamour, swept away by beauties she had dreamt of all her life and never dared hope to know. Singers sat before the kings pavilion, filling the dusk with music. A juggler kept a cascade of earnest clubs spinning through the air. The kings own fool, the pie-faced simpleton called Moon Boy, danced about on stilts, all in motley, making mock of everyone with such deft inclemency that Sansa wondered if he was simple after all. Even Septa Mordane was helpless before him when he sang his little song about the High Septon, she japeed so hard she spilled wine on herself.And Joffrey was the soul of courtesy. He talked to Sansa all night, showering her with compliments, making her laugh, share little bits of court gossip, explaining Moon Boys japes. Sansa was so captivated that she quite forgot all her courtesies and ignored Septa Mordane, seated to her left.All the while the courses came and went. A thick dope up of barley and venison. Salads of sweetgrass and spinach and plums, sprinkled with crushed nuts. Snails in honey and garlic. Sansa had never eaten snails before Joffrey showed her how to get the snail out of the shell, and fed her the first sweet bite himself. Then came trout fresh from the river, baked in clay her prince helped her crack feed the hard casing to expose the flaky white flesh within. And when the meat course was brought out, he served her himself, slicing a queens portion from the joystick, smiling as he laid it on her plate. She could see from the way he moved that his right arm was still troubling him, yet he utter not a word of complaint.Later came sweetbreads and pigeon pie and baked apples musky with cinnamon and maize cakes frosted in sugar, but by then Sansa was so stuffed that she could not manage more than two little lemon cakes, as much as she loved them. She was wondering whether she might exploit a third when the king began to shout.King Robert had boastful louder with each course. From time to time Sansa could hear him laughing or roaring a reign over the music and the clangor of plates and cutlery, but they were too far away for her to make out his words.Now everybody heard him. No, he thundered in a voice that drowned out all other speech. Sansa was shocked to see the king on his feet, red of face, reeling. He had a goblet of wine in one hand, and he was drunk as a man could be. You do not secern me what to do, woman, he screamed at Queen Cersei. I am king here, do you understand? I rule here, a nd if I distinguish that I will fight tomorrow, I will fightEveryone was staring. Sansa saw Ser Barristan, and the kings brother Renly, and the short man who had talked to her so oddly and touched her hair, but no one made a move to interfere. The queens face was a mask, so bloodless that it might have been sculpted from snow. She rose from the table, pull together her skirts around her, and stormed off in secrecy, servants trailing behind.Jaime Lannister put a hand on the kings shoulder, but the king shoved him away hard. Lannister stumbled and fell. The king guffawed. The great knight. I can still knock you in the dirt. Remember that, Kingslayer. He slapped his toilet table with the jeweled goblet, splashing wine all over his satin tunic. Give me my hammer and not a man in the realm can stand before meJaime Lannister rose and brushed himself off. As you say, Your approving. His voice was stiff.Lord Renly came forward, smiling. Youve spilled your wine, Robert. allow me bring y ou a fresh goblet.Sansa started as Joffrey laid his hand on her arm. It grows late, the prince said. He had a queer look on his face, as if he were not seeing her at all. Do you need an escort back to the castle?No, Sansa began. She looked for Septa Mordane, and was startled to find her with her head on the table, snoring patrician and ladylike snores. I mean to say . . . yes, thank you, that would be most kind. I am tired, and the way is so dark. I should be buoyant for some protection.Joffrey called out, DogSandor Clegane seemed to take form out of the night, so quickly did he appear. He had exchanged his armor for a red woolen tunic with a leather dogs head sewn on the front. The light of the flashlightes made his burned face shine a dull red. Yes, Your Grace? he said.Take my betrothed back to the castle, and see that no harm befalls her, the prince told him brusquely. And without even a word of farewell, Joffrey strode off, leaving her there.Sansa could feel the Hound watchi ng her. Did you think Joff was going to take you himself? He laughed. He had a laugh like the snarling of dogs in a pit. Small chance of that. He pulled her resupine to her feet. Come, youre not the only one needs sleep. Ive drunk too much, and I may need to kill my brother tomorrow. He laughed again.Suddenly terrified, Sansa pushed at Septa Mordanes shoulder, hoping to wake her, but she only snored the louder. King Robert had stumbled off and half the benches were on the spur of the moment empty. The feast was over, and the beautiful dream had ended with it.The Hound snatched up a torch to light their way. Sansa followed close beside him. The ground was rocky and uneven the move back and forth light made it seem to shift and move beneath her. She kept her eyes lowered, watching where she placed her feet. They walked among the pavilions, each with its banner and its armor hung outside, the conquer weighing heavier with every step. Sansa could not bear the sight of him, he frighte ned her so, yet she had been raised in all the ways of courtesy. A true lady would not notice his face, she told herself. You rode gallantly today, Ser Sandor, she made herself say.Sandor Clegane snarled at her. Spare me your empty little compliments, girl . . . and your sers. I am no knight. I spit on them and their vows. My brother is a knight. Did you see him ride today?Yes, Sansa whispered, trembling. He was . . .Gallant? the Hound finished.He was mocking her, she realized. No one could withstand him, she managed at last, proud of herself. It was no lie.Sandor Clegane stopped curtly in the middle of a dark and empty field. She had no extract but to stop beside him. Some septa trained you well. Youre like one of those birds from the Summer Isles, arent you? A evenhandedly little talking bird, repeating all the pretty little words they taught you to recite.Thats unkind. Sansa could feel her heart fluttering in her chest. Youre shake up me. I want to go now.No one could withsta nd him, the Hound rasped. Thats truth enough. No one could ever withstand Gregor. That boy today, his second joust, oh, that was a pretty bit of business. You saw that, did you? Fool boy, he had no business riding in this company. No money, no squire, no one to help him with that armor. That gorget wasnt fastened proper. You think Gregor didnt notice that? You think Ser Gregors lance rode up by chance, do you? Pretty little talking girl, you believe that, youre goofy as a bird for true. Gregors lance goes where Gregor wants it to go. wager at me. Look at me Sandor Clegane put a huge hand under her chin and forced her face up. He squatted in front of her, and moved the torch close. Theres a pretty for you. Take a good long stare. You know you want to. Ive watched you turning away all the way down the kingsroad. constitute on that. Take your look.His fingers held her jaw as hard as an exhort trap. His eyes watched hers. Drunken eyes, sullen with anger. She had to look.The right si de of his face was gaunt, with aggressively cheekbones and a grey eye beneath a heavy brow. His snout was large and hooked, his hair thin, dark. He wore it long and brushed it sideways, because no hair grew on the other side of that face.The left side of his face was a ruin. His ear had been burned away there was nothing left but a hole. His eye was still good, but all around it was a twisted mass of scar, slick black flesh hard as leather, pocked with craters and fissured by deep cracks that gleamed red and wet when he moved. beat by his jaw, you could see a hint of bone where the flesh had been heat up away.Sansa began to cry. He let go of her then, and snuffed out the torch in the dirt. No pretty words for that, girl? No little compliment the septa taught you? When there was no answer, he continued. Most of them, they think it was some battle. A siege, a burning tower, an enemy with a torch. One fool asked if it was dragonsbreath. His laugh was softer this time, but just as b itter. Ill tell you what it was, girl, he said, a voice from the night, a shadow leaning so close now that she could smell the simulated stench of wine on his breath. I was younger than you, six, maybe seven. A woodcarver set up shop in the village under my fathers keep, and to buy favor he sent us founders. The old man made marvelous toys. I dont remember what I got, but it was Gregors gift I wanted. A wooden knight, all painted up, every joint pegged separate and fixed with strings, so you could make him fight. Gregor is five years former(a) than me, the toy was nothing to him, he was already a squire, near six foot tall and muscled like an ox. So I took his knight, but there was no joy to it, I tell you. I was scared all the while, and true enough, he found me. There was a brazier in the room. Gregor never said a word, just picked me up under his arm and shoved the side of my face down in the burning coals and held me there while I screamed and screamed. You saw how strong he is. Even then, it took three grown men to drag him off me. The septons preach about the seven hells. What do they know? Only a man whos been burned knows what hell is truly like.My father told everyone my bedding had caught fire, and our maester gave me ointments. Ointments Gregor got his ointments too. Four years later, they anointed him with the seven oils and he recited his gothic vows and Rhaegar Targaryen tapped him on the shoulder and said, Arise, Ser Gregor. The rasping voice trailed off. He squatted silently before her, a hulking black shape shrouded in the night, hidden from her eyes. Sansa could hear his ragged breathing. She was sad for him, she realized. Somehow, the fear had gone away.The silence went on and on, so long that she began to grow afraid once more, but she was afraid for him now, not for herself. She found his massive shoulder with her hand. He was no true knight, she whispered to him.The Hound threw back his head and roared. Sansa stumbled back, away from h im, but he caught her arm. No, he growled at her, no, little bird, he was no true knight.The rest of the way into the city, Sandor Clegane said not a word. He led her to where the carts were waiting, told a number one wood to take them back to the Red Keep, and climbed in after her. They rode in silence through the Kings Gate and up torchlit city streets. He opened the postern opening and led her into the castle, his burned face twitching and his eyes brooding, and he was one step behind her as they climbed the tower stairs. He took her safe all the way to the corridor outside her bedchamber.Thank you, my lord, Sansa said meekly.The Hound caught her by the arm and leaned close. The things I told you tonight, he said, his voice sounding even rougher than usual. If you ever tell Joffrey . . . your sister, your father . . . any of them . . . I wont, Sansa whispered. I promise.It was not enough. If you ever tell anyone, he finished, Ill kill you.

Coming of Age Essay

Around the world there are many a(prenominal) themes that we find over and over in many cultures and from many periods in time. One of the reoccurring themes that everyone goes through in the lifetime is the theme of approach shot of age. This occurs when a raw person goes through the transition from childhood to due date and has life come acrosss that matures a person. We all have experienced a orgasm of age story by reading them in books, seeing them on TV or in movies, or maybe even personal experiences based on ones culture.Its clear that approach of age is a crucial element of our self-representations and conceptions. Generally, all of living is a border of advent of age as seen in the novel, Catcher in the Rye. Holden Caulfield, who is sixteen-year-old male child with the brain of a ten year old. He thinks of innocence as authoritative in the beginning of the novel. But later on in the book, Holden easy reverses to be an adult. For example, when Holden acquires s oaking wet by rain when he is nonice his little sister ride the carousal he felt so damn happy all of a sudden(213).This symbolizes Holden entering adulthood because he realizes the happiness in life. He realizes that he is too braggy for the carousel and is happy that his sister is happy. Holdens childish personality keep to wash away as he reached a stage of maturity. everyplace the course of the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout is taken from a authority of innocence, in which she believes that she is safe and that there arent many bad mountain in the world, to the position where she has witnessed some of the bad things that have happened but realizes that she is not entirely safe.That is tested at the end of the novel when Scout was attacked duration walking home with her brother Jem. Similarities were show in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Hucks maturity begins to grow as he first starts to show emotions toward a runaway slave, and by the end of the novel, has g rown up to the point where, when Jim, is captured, Huck decides to give up playing games after Tom is shot to ensure that he would get medical attention that he needed.In an episode of Malcolm in the midpoint it revolved around Malcolm trying to help his classmate Dabney get into a paintball match despite the resistance of Dabneys overbearing mom. Once Dabney unleashes long time of repressed aggression, his mom comes around to try to drag him off. Dabney reacts back by saying Im no longer your little boy anymore. Im your little man showing that Dabney has matured and stands up and says what he believes. In the movie Edward Scissorhands, Edward is taken in by a family who he depends on.The family teach him how to think for himself so that one day he can gain the independence that is necessary for him to go out on his own. Edward living off of the familys support and trying things for himself is a plan of attack of age process in itself. When he starts acting out and making his own decisions he is transitioning into an independent mindset that eventually allowed him to make the woof of living alone and fend for himself. Roman Catholics believe that Confirmation .. completes the process of initiation into the community and it matures the soul for the work ahead..During confirmation God the devoted Spirit comes upon the person, accompanied by God the Father and God the Son, exactly as he did at Pentecost. (Acts 214) Those who have been substantiate are called Soldiers of God. This refers to their spiritual duty to fight evil, darkness, and Satan. In Nigeria, young girls known as Iriabo spend several weeks in fattening inhabit being pampered and wearing copper coils around their legs to restrict movement as part of a ritual marking their official transition into womanhood.In Senegal, Bassari boys undergoing the Kore rite and are taken into a sacred forest where they experience a symbolic death and a return to infancy, a dry land of ritual purity from where they are reborn as mature members of the community. (Hipple) Ultimately, the coming of age experience is a very much so operative time in ones life. People have to continue to find themselves and search who they are even after the coming of age experience. It has lasting do on a person as it has an impact on our dreams and desires that we indirect request to fit into our world.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Legalized Marijuana and Law Enforcement Essay

after partnabis is the well-nigh vulgar adulterous medicate all(a) e rattlingwhere the set upation including the joined States. It is derived from the leaves, flowers, seeds and stem of ganja sativa. THC, tetrahyrocannabinol is the main active comp whiznt of ganja. The medicate can either be smoked or mixed with foods and beverages. In the streets, hemp is commonly cognize as the herb, pot, ganja among other names. thither atomic number 18 many a(prenominal) status do, both short term and keen-sighted term ca handling associated with maltreatment of hemp. However, ganja has a quid been employ aesculapianly in hospitals. Legalization of ganja in the coupled States has ever attracted a heated debate.It is distinguished to utterance that hemp was non disc everyplaceed yesterday. For the centuries in which the herb has been exampled, it has been completely efficacious. It is estimated that ganja has been culpable for less than one percent the period man has employ it. The do do medicatess is know to fork up been in use as earliest as 7000 BC simply it was made sinful in the join States in the 20th century. A History of marihuana The history of marihuana jurisprudences in the unify States is very interesting. The startle right relating to cannabis or halter sativa to be enacted in the modern day America was in 1619 in Jamestown in Virginia.For many years, the plant had been in use for diverse functions much(prenominal) as food, incense, rope among others. It is as well interesting to note that the prototypically fair play related to the herb was a must draw law that required all sodbusters in the colony to grow the crop. A farmer could be taken to put to sleep or punished for failing to grow the crop due to it shortage in the region in the eighteenth century. The must grow laws were in that locationfore in place for more(prenominal)(prenominal) than cardinal centuries. The government activity e ncouraged the farmers to plant the crop due to its importance among the army requirements.However, it is important to note that although the plant was critical in the 17th and eighteenth century, to an extent of it be utilise as a legal tender, the universe was not aw are of its uses as a recreational drug until the archaeozoicish 20th century (Inciardi, 1990). In the mid 19th century, over dickens g-force acres of land in the coupled States was chthonian hempen necktie sativa plantations. The herb was mainly grown for use in the textile industry. However, the spot changed in the early 20th century due to the large influx of immigrants from Central America especially Mexico.This influx was triggered by the Mexican transition in the early 20th century. Tension was generated between the small occurrence farmers and the plantation owners due to the availability of cheap labor from Mexican Americans. The proportion was made worse by the fast changing world in the after ward math of the First World War and the neverthelesst of the immense depression. The summationd tension as well as the high count of immigrants from South and Central America made resources scarce and the quality of life history in American cities deteriorated scrapeificantly.It is important to note that when the immigrants from Mexico arrived in the United States, bullet of hemp for recreation was common in Mexico but it was unheard among the American population. Consequently, the Mexicans brought with them the herb as well as the bullet habit. These Mexican immigrants introduced roll of baccy of marijuana in the United States which resulted into the first law prohibiting marijuana in atomic number 20 (Inciardi, 1990). Other than the Mexican immigrants use of marijuana prompting the first law prohibiting preparation of hemp, in that respect were other factors that sourd the enactment of the new law. to the highest degree important was the use of the drug by Mormons who had been sent to the Central American kingdom in the early 20th century. The Mormons came back with marijuana and they were al get exploitation it. The churches response to this may puddle had a big ascertain in the enactment of the first anti marijuana laws in atomic number 20. Consequently, unlike domains including Texas, Wyoming, Washington, and Oregon among other assures had laws limiting the use of marijuana in the early 1920s. Most importantly, the laws were designed to specifically sharpen the Mexican immigrants who were well known to use the drug (Inciardi, 1990).Compared to other states, the eastern states did not wee-wee a large number of Mexican immigrants but the chore of marijuana was limpid in the states too. Analysts have argued that the drug was introduced by Latin Americans and African Americans grapple musicians. Marijuana is believed to have traveled across the eastern states much(prenominal) as Chicago, Harlem and New Orleans. Abuse of mariju ana was part of the jazz music execution of instrument scenes. Racism was overly an important factor in the enactment of the anti marijuana laws where the white extremists argued that the herb gave the Negroes and the Latin Americans the courage to face the whites.During the alike period, there were rumors in the public that the immigrants as well as the African Americans were influencing young whites including children into taking the drug. This was the origin of the assassin stories of nonrecreational killers at a lower place the influence of marijuana. In the thirties, the use of marijuana in the United States was associated with violent behaviors as a result of these stories (Inciardi, 1990). As early as mid 1920s, the United States supported international conventions that regulated marijuana in the form of the Indian hemp.These conventions admitd the international opium convention which prohibited exports of Indian hemp to countries and states in which marijuana use was illegal. The convention as well required proper documentations that sanctioned the importation of marijuana to such countries if it was meant for aesculapian use. However, the convention did not chance upon other cabanas products such as fiber which were widely produced in europium and the United States. It was believed that the Indian hemp contained higher levels of THC compared to the European hemp which was mainly grown for use in the textile industry (Inciardi, 1990).The first anti marijuana national official law in the United States was the render states narcotic acts whose first draft was introduced in 1925 and the final draft was ready seven years later. This new law sought to introduce changeless anti narcotic laws throughout the United States. Following the enactment of this law, the federal official Bureau of Narcotics was created which encouraged the adopting on uniform regulations. By mid 1930s all the states had adopted close to laws that regulated the produc tion, distribution and use of marihuana products.The establishment of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics in 1930 change magnitude the concern over the increased use of cannabis in the American population. The bureau was headed by Anslinger, one of the to the highest degree celebrated anti narcotic crusaders in the American history, who argued that marijuana was prudent for the increased violent detestations in the decree and false acts. The bureau utilise both the print media as well as the first developing film industry to spread propaganda against the use of cannabis (Inciardi, 1990).The Geneva trafficking convention of 1936 is overly an important convention in the legal history of marijuana. Led by head of Federal Bureau of Narcotic, Anslinger, the United States government tried to influence the world society to execrableize all activities manifold in the production, processing, distribution and use of cannabis and opium in the world unless it is for scientific or checku p reasons. However, the proposal was rejected and only trafficking of the drug remains illegal internationally.The signatory governments were expected to establish systems within their crook justice systems to punish respective(prenominal)s involved in trafficking of prohibited drugs in their countries. payable to the failed attempts by the American government to influence the international community, the officials did not sign the treaty terming it too weak to deal with the problem at stack (Inciardi, 1990). The marijuana tax acts of 1937 are considered to be the nearly evidential law towards the legitimation of marijuana in the United States.The act was penned by Anslinger and sponsored by Robert Doughton. The principle object of the bill was to completely destroy the production, distribution and use of cannabis products in the United States terminating it illegal drug businesses. The act also specified penalties to which manyones put together in self-control of the dr ug were to be subjected to. Those found guilty of cannabis related offences were subjected to a five years censure or could be fined up to two thousand dollars. This was all aimed at increasing the attempts involved in the illegal business.The act was however hostile by a large number of Americans including the American Medical connecter who argued that the act imposed tax on health check exam personnel using cannabis as a prescribed drug. The act also circumscribed and taxed the production and sale of cannabis meant for health check use. Other than the new acts being enacted, the association proposed that the Harrison Narcotics Tax Acts could have been strengthened to deal with the emerging problem of marijuana abuse (Bertram, 1996). Since then, the federal government has continuously increased its alerting in dealing with marijuana among other drugs in the country.Marijuana in the United States is today controlled by the controlled substance act which is contained in the worldwide drug abuse prevention and control act that was enacted in 1970 as an appeal to the marijuana tax act of 1937. However, the act does not agnize between marijuana meant for medical use or recreation purpose and prohibits possession, production and distribution of large quantities of the drug. Consequently, the federal laws treat marijuana like any other illegal drug with no medical look upon. Marijuana is wherefore treated in the same way as cocaine and heroine.All the controlled substances low the federal are placed in a schedule according to their properties which includes risk of abuse and potential uses in medicine. In the controlled substance act, marijuana is not considered to have any medical value and is rated as a super habit-forming substance and thusly placed under schedule 1 drug. Although doctors can use the first refinement to root on its use in treatments, under the current federal regulations, prescribing marijuana is illegal (Gray, 2001). The Drug E nforcement disposal was also established to enforce federal anti narcotic laws in the country.The DEA has over the years taken a bus of interests in the production and use of medical marijuana. Moreover, the agency has targeted specific separates involved in illegal drugs production and distribution. This mainly includes the minority races, African Americans and Hispanic Americans, who have been found to fall victims of illegal drugs abuse. Consequently, the war on drugs has resulted into bang of institutional racism and racial profiling where the anti narcotic laws were designed to target the minority races.This issue continues to attract debate in the country while the American correctional facilities and the criminal justice systems in customary is overwhelmed by the large number of drug related criminal cases (Musto & ampere Korsmeyer, 1996). Although in many cases the drug enforcement administration leave alone cases involving medical use of marijuana, the federal laws hav e punitive penalties against individuals found in possession of marijuana for whatever reason. The drug is considered dangerous, illegal and with no medical use.For this reason, the courts keep up that an individual cannot defend himself on the basis of medical use when convicted of marijuana related cases. However, in many cases, defense attorneys have always embossed the issues during trials. Sentencing is also an important legal aspect of marijuana in the United States. An accuse can either be subjected to the federal sentencing guidelines created in 1987 or the mandatory minimum sentence created in the late 1980s. In the federal sentencing guidelines, an individual criminate of marijuana related crimes is sentenced based on his criminal record.Under these guidelines, not all marijuana related crimes offenders are subjected to a jail term. However, they are all eligible for imprisonment. The guidelines require that the convicted individual should dish out at least 85 percent of the jail term. The length of the jail term is determined by the amount of marijuana the individual is accused of being in possession. Low level crimes can result into a sentence of between one month and one year probation even in cases where multiple convictions are reported.For example, under the guidelines possession of one kilogram of marijuana attracts an alternative sentence of 6-12 months probation while two and half kilograms and no retiring(a) record attracts not less than six months imprisonment and up to two three years incase of prior record of drug crimes with no alternative sentence. Although the judges continue to be influenced by these federal guidelines in imposing sentences, they are no broader mandatory. However, they are supposititious to be advisory to ensure uniformity in sentencing (Bonnie & Whitebread, 1999).Cases involving marijuana are also subject to the minimum mandatory sentencing laws. The sentences mainly target individuals accused of possessio n of huge amounts of drugs. For example, the minimum mandatory sentence for an individual found guilty of possessing one coulomb kilograms of marijuana or cultivating one nose candy plants of cannabis is five years if he has no drug related crime record and ten years if otherwise. 1 thousand kilograms of plants attract ten years imprisonment with no prior record, xx years with prior record and life imprisonment in case of multiple drug offences.Therefore, drug users and traffickers always parry possessing one hundred or more kilograms of marijuana at any time to avoid the minimum mandatory sentence of five years (Gray, 2001). Medical ready of Marijuana The set up of marijuana on the user have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. There are a good number of studies that are still on liberation on the negative as well as positive make of marijuana use on kind body. It is important to note that the use of marijuana for recreation purposes has not been widely pr onounced in the past as compared to other drugs.While narcotic use dates back to over a century, the use of marijuana has not been very prevalent in the general society until the last three or so decades. Consequently, the languish term personal do of marijuana abuse have not been very well documented although there are substantial and reasonable theory that have been proposed. It is also important to note that arguably, marijuana has been considered to be among the safest illegal drugs such as heroine and cocaine. It has also been argued to be safer than close to legal drugs such as tobacco and alcoholic drink.Moreover, it has been validateed to have pharmacological characteristic and so been used as a healing(p) drug for many years. It has been used in treatment of tribe suffering from chronic pain, Aids, crabby person and other terminal diseases. look is also being carried out to validate the allege applicability in treatment of mental conditions such as fear and post traumatic stress disorder (Gruber et al, 2003). While looking at the negative impacts of marijuana on the user, it is also important to note that when used in moderation, marijuana does not have as many denigrative effects as alcohol and tobacco.The social and economic impacts on marijuana could also reduce significantly if the use of marijuana is controlled. However, this is not realizable when its use is illegal. No cases of accidents on the roads have been reported as a result of influence of marijuana despite it being the most abused drug in the United States. Moreover, although the health complication associated with alcohol and tobacco has been sustain, very few have been confirmed in notification to marijuana. Reports on harmfulness of marijuana on the user have been ill-judged and mare hypothesis some of which are contradictory. Short term effectsThe active component in marijuana, THC, is responsible for the short term effects of marijuana experienced by the user. The main short term effects of the drug are as a result of its effects on the central nervous system. THC is known to bind to the protein receptor spirit cells in the brain. by and by binding, the chemical propagate a chemical reaction in the nervous system and produces the short term effects of the drug. ace of the most immediate effects of these chemical reactions is restraining the users remembrance as well as learning abilities. After using the drug, the individual feels relaxed and may be very talkative.Other pleasant effects of marijuana use include lifting the moods, feeling relaxed and a change in the state of consciousness. This is why marijuana users claim to feel more enlightened and philosophic when they are high. These short term effects on the user plateau after thirty minutes to one hour and subsidies there after. However, there are marchs of some of the effects lasting for several days or weeks (Moore, et al, 2007). Other short term effects of marijuana include inc rease in appetite, dryness in the mouth, afflicted logical thinking and leaden reaction time.Intoxication with marijuana is also associated with nausea, occasional confusion, increased disturbance and agitation, increased warmnessbeat, loss of memory and paranoia or hallucinations. Marijuana users have also been found to have bloodspots in their eyes, inconsistent time perception and increased inability to carry out tasks that require concentration such as operating a machine or driving. The individual may also suffer from loss of motivation and decreased cognitive abilities making it serious to learn or acquire new information.In general, the individuals ability to learn, remember, make informed judgments, think critically, solve problems, communicate effectively and form concepts is impaired when he is high. Studies indicate that the risk of fancy coming increase by more than four fold immediately after an individual has smoked marijuana. This is because the heart rate can increase with up to a hundred percent after using the drug which can be maintained for up to three hours. The increased risk of heart attack is also as a result of the changes in the heart rhythms. This risk increases with age and vulnerability to heart diseases (Gruber et al, 2003). desire term effects While the long term effects of marijuana are under investigation and therefore not well known, there is no discredit that long term use of marijuana have detrimental effects on the users health as well as social life. The insufficient information on long term use of marijuana is due to the fact that the drug has not been very common to many societies in the world until recently. There is no motion that when marijuana smokers are compared to cigarette smokers, marijuana smokers consume much less cannabis compared to the tobacco consumed by cigarette smokers.However, this does not mean that marijuana smoking has undistinguished long term effects compared to cigarette smoking and the refore should not be ignored. Recent studies have found out that there are more hydrocarbons that have potential carcinogenic effects in marijuana compared to tobacco. Moreover, marijuana smokers may be more exposed to these entangleds than tobacco smokers because marijuana is deeply inhaled and the smoke is held for a longer time in the lungs compared to tobacco.This exposes the delicate tissues in the lungs to more carcinogenic compounds increasing the risk of cancer (Mittleman et al, 2001). Studies have indicated that marijuana use increase the risk of cancers such a cancer of the head and neck by up to three times. It has also been confirmed to have a significant contribution in the discipline of cancers that have traditionally been associated with tobacco smoking. Marijuana smoke is believed to have up to three times as much tar as in tobacco smoke. Moreover, it has over twice the number of potential carcinogenic compounds when compared to tobacco smoke.Logically, this sugges ts that marijuana smoking has a significant increase in the risk of development of cancerous cells leading to lung cancer. However, scientific research is underway to confirm these hypotheses. Other than marijuana being a recent drug among the wider population compared to other drugs, scientific research on its long term effects has been hindered by the small sample that is available due to punitive anti marijuana laws in many parts of the world. For examples, most of marijuana never-ending users are still too young to have developed cancer.However, although there is no prove, long term marijuana users need to reconsider the risks associated with the drug (Hashibe, et al, 2006). The effects of long term use of marijuana in animals resistive systems are well known. The immune system plays a vital social function in nurseing the body against harmful microorganisms. Research in animals indicates that the marijuana has a significant effect on the T cells, especially in the lungs. Al though this has not been confirmed in human beings, there is no interrogative that it affects the users immune systems because the animals immune system is similar to that of human beings.While it is expected that marijuana smokers too have similar respiratory system problems as tobacco smokers, it has been observed that majority of these problems are more frequent among marijuana smokers. They are more frequently attacked by government agency colds, coughs, production of phlegm, and obstruction of airways and higher risk of lungs infections. This is possible due to the effect of the drug on the T cells and thus immune systems in the lungs (Tashkin, 2005). The long term effects of marijuana on the users reproductive system is not in doubt.This is more serious considering the fact that marijuana is one of the most abused drugs among young people in the United States. The active compound in marijuana has been known to have adverse effects on various parts of the central nervous syst em including areas that are responsible for controlling sexual hormones and growth. Consequently, long term use of marijuana has been found to reduce the level of testosterone and other sex hormones in male. In some cases, it has been associated with increased femininity due to distortion of the hormone system.It can also lead to infertility, reduced sperm count and increased insaneity in sperm cells. Significant cases of infertility in males has for this reason been linked to long term use of marijuana. The drug has been seen to have similar effects in females by altering the hormonal systems leading to irregular menstrual cycles. However, the vicissitude can be reversed but it may take time. It has also been found to negatively affect unborn babies who are born with an impaired nervous system.This results into children with poor learning abilities, hormonal irregularities, lack of attention and abnormal reactions to different stimulus such as sound and light (Moore, et al, 2007) . Long term use of marijuana is also associated with mental disorders. One of the sterling(prenominal) negative effects of marijuana use in an individual is its addictive effects. The ability of the drug user to develop dependency on the drug has always been the main argument used to support prohibition of marijuana use. However, other mental disorders have been associated with long term use of marijuana.They include toxic psychosis which may reach acute accent levels, panic attacks, increased belligerency which the user is unable to control, flashbacks and delusions, paranoia and hallucinations as well as some cases of acute depression. Marijuana has also been suggested to trigger other serious mental conditions such as schizophrenia. These effects of the drug on the mental health of an individual have been the point of contention between pros and cons of therapeutic use of marijuana in terminally ill endurings (Moore, et al, 2007).What are the legal guidelines and state statut es of some of the states that have legalized marijuana? The federal and states laws in the United States varies in semblance to medical marijuana. According to the controlled substance act, the federal systems do not recognize the medical properties of marijuana. However, prosecuting patients or medical practitioner for using marijuana for therapeutic procedures is not a priority in the federal legal systems. The federal legal systems recognizes the fact that caregivers may be compelled to use medical marijuana in certain medical cases which is allowed in some states.Fourteen states have so far legalized medical marijuana use within their legal power while others gives police or judge discretion to allow significant reduction in the punishment given to marijuana users for medical reasons. One of the most published states in relation to medical marijuana is California where the drug is distributed through dispensaries. It is estimated that medical marijuana industry in California wa s worth two billion dollars in 2008 which attracted over one hundred million dollars in tax (DPA, 2010).Despite majority of Americans and civil society organizations in America supporting legislation of medical marijuana, the federal government has always rejected the proposals. In 2005, the Supreme Court made a ruling confirming that a patient can be prosecuted in the federal court for using marijuana and medical reasons cannot be used as a defense. This law applies even in states that have legalized medical marijuana. Consequently, on several occasions, dispensaries distributing medical marijuana such as in California have been raided by federal officials from the Drug Enforcement Administration.The ruling by the Supreme Court provided an excellent opportunity for the amendment of the law to protect patients and medical marijuana legislatures in different states but the bill was once more rejected by congress (DPA, 2010). . Despite the congress rejecting the proposal to amend the law and legalize medical marijuana, the high court ruling had insignificant effects on the states medical marijuana laws. The court did not have the power to overturn or exercise authority over the states legislations.It is important to note that about 99 percent of marijuana related arrests are done at the states level which makes it possible for legislation in the states to protect patients and caregivers. The state laws can afford to effectively remove all penalties against individuals accused of growing, processing, distributing or possessing marijuana for medical reasons. Other states have not legalized medical marijuana but have symbolic legislatures that legally protect the patient in the state legal systems (DPA, 2010).From a wide range of contentious issues relating to drug policies in the United States, medical marijuana has received the great public support. The American population is skewed towards legalization of medical marijuana despite the federal government reject ing such proposals. Scientific studies have confirmed the medical value of marijuana in patients with serious terminal diseases such as cancer, Aids, epilepsy and chronic pain among others. There is also documented evidence of marijuana use in treating variety of illnesses in the ancient world.The most comprehensive study relating to medical marijuana was carried out in 1999 by the institute of medicine which concluded that marijuana has potent in the circumspection of conditions such as loss of appetite, anxiety and chronic pain. Various professional bodies and organizations such as the American Public Health Association, the Aids live up to Council and the National Association of Attorney Generals have deliberated on legal rag to medical marijuana for patients with certain medical conditions.The American population has happy the abolishment of laws prohibiting production, distribution and use of medical marijuana at the state and federal level. Voters from various states have over the years passed ballot initiatives to jabbing for legalization of medical marijuana. Over seventy percent of voters throughout the United States support the proposal to have legal marijuana available to medical practitioners for prescriptions (Cassidy, 2002). The point of contention on the legality of medical marijuana has been whether the eudaemonia accrued is less than the risk involved.There have been many arguments on possible shortcoming upon legislation of medical marijuana. For example, questions have been raised on whether patients under marijuana prescription would be allowed to drive while under the influence of the drug, how to control the quantity the patient uses, the issue of addiction and medical marijuana getting into the wrong hands. However, it seems that this is not the main concern of the federal government. The main reason why the federal government has been opposed to legalization of marijuana for any reason is based on the Drug Enforcement Administrati on description of marijuana.DEA maintains that marijuana has no medical value and is a highly addictive substance with adverse effects on the body such as compromising the immune systems and triggering the development of cancer. The government has ignored some research that has confirmed the medical benefits on marijuana (Cassidy, 2002). Consequences on righteousness Enforcement What difficulties would Law Enforcement Officers encounter if marijuana was legalized? Legalization of marijuana is likely to chip in about many challenges to the law enforcement structures.This is due to the interdependence of illegal drug markets where almost all narcotics go hand in hand. Although some people have argued that marijuana is safer compared to other illegal as well as some legal drugs, its legalization lead in no doubt be a stepping stone drug. It will open up production, distribution and use of other harder drugs which will be problematic to law enforcement. Research indicates that progre ssive use of marijuana eventually leads the user to harder drugs. Because marijuana is considered a harmless drug, it is used for experimentation by potential hard drugs abusers.After a while, the user turns to other drugs. This will be worse if marijuana is made legal. More people will be introduced to it because of its legality and in the long run, the law enforcement will have a difficulty in dealing with a much bigger problem of harder drugs (Husak & Marneffe, 2005). The law enforcement agencies in the United States have enough drug related problems to deal with. The system ought to have learnt a good lesson from the legality of drugs such as alcohol. Road carnage as a result of driving under influence of alcohol is among the top killers in the United States.The law enforcement has always had a problem dealing with underage drinking and aggressive behaviors associated with alcoholism. Legalizing other drug means added problems. The dangers associated with stone driving will increase significantly. It is therefore wrong to legalize marijuana because it amounts to a victimless crime. There are many crimes that are associated with marijuana use such as violence and aggressiveness. correctional penalties to deter irresponsible drinking have proved unworkable which suggests that it will be difficult to control marijuana use if legalized.A thingummy can be used to detect drivers under the influence of alcohol, but this may not be possible when the driver is driving high. There is no doubt that legislation of marijuana will increase crime and burden in law enforcement (Husak & Marneffe, 2005). Arresting individuals found in possession of marijuana and other drugs reduces the likelihood of such individuals rehearseting crimes. Drug addicts have been associated with minor and serious crimes such as shoplifting, theft and other property crimes to pay for their habits.Legalization of marijuana means that there will be more of these drug users in the streets and neighborhoods. These individuals are more likely to commit more serious crimes since the law enforcers are not obliged to get them out of the streets. Moreover, majority of murderers, rapists and robbers have been found to be drug addicts. By incarcerating these individuals for possession of drugs, they are incapacitated from committing such serious crimes. Common find dictates prevention is better than dealing with the resultant problem. If there is reason to cast aside potential murderers,