Thursday, November 28, 2019
WTVX, Channel 6, is located in Eugene, Oregon, home of the University of Oregons football team. The station was owned and operated by George Wilcox, a former Duck (University of Oregon football player). Although there were other television stations in Eugene, WTVX was the only station that had a weatherperson who was a member of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Every night, Joe Hummel would be introduced as the only weatherperson in Eugene who was a member of the AMS. This was Georges idea, and he believed that this gave his station the mark of quality and helped with market share. In addition to being a member of AMS, Joe was also the most popular person on any of the local news programs. Joe was always trying to find innovative ways to make the weather interesting, and this was especially difficult during the winter months when the weather seemed to remain the same over long periods of time. We will write a custom essay sample on WTVX Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Joes forecast for next month, for example, was that there would be a 70% chance of rain every day, and that what happens on one day (rain or shine) was not in any way dependent on what happened the day before. One of Joes most popular features of the weather report was to invite questions during the actual broadcast. Questions would be phoned in, and they were answered on the spot by Joe. Once a 10-year-old boy asked what caused fog, and Joe did an excellent job of describing some of the various causes. Occasionally, Joe would make a mistake. For example, a high school senior asked Joe what the chances were of getting 15 days of rain in the next month (30 days). Joe made a quick calculation: (70%) x (15 days/30 days) = (70%) (1/2) = 35%. Joe quickly found out what it was like being wrong in a university town. He had over 50 phone calls from scientists, mathematicians, and other university professors, telling him that he had made a big mistake in computing the chances of getting 15 days of rain during the next 30 days. Although Joe didnt understand all of the formulas the professors mentioned, he was determined to find the correct answer and make a correction during a future broadcast. Discussion Questions 1. What are the chances of getting 15 days of rain during the next 30 days? 2. What do you think about Joes assumptions concerning the weather for the next 30 days? Please answer the two Discussion Questions in managerial format (as if you were sending your results to upper management).Elaborate on answers. What are the chances of getting 15 days of rain during the next 30 days? Solution: You have a Binomial Distribution with p = 0.7 q = (1-p) = 1-0.7 = 0.3 n = 30 x = 15 P (x =15) = Therefore, the probability of getting exactly 15 days of rain out of 30 days, is 0.0106 What do you think about JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions concerning the weather for the next 30 days? Solution: Joe used simple probability calculations and therefore his assessment went wrong.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Free Essays on I Miss U i'll let you in on how im feelin you've got a lot of nerve you'll get what you deserve granted this feeling's unappealing i'm bitter i'll admit but now i gotta deal with it just one more thing, ok... it's all so sad to say what we had has gone away ya could say its sad think of what we coulda haddd i'll let you out without resistance parting this was is not the way we ever thought, in fact i'd always thought we'd go the distance but we went nowhere quick so sad it makes me sick just one more thing ok? it's all so sad to say!...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Discuss the prospects for a peaceful resolution to the isreali-palestinian conflict.What are the core issues that need to be resolved for lasting peace to occur - Essay Example decades in order to bring about lasting peace between Israelis and Palestinians but all of these attempts have ended up in failure mainly because of the unwillingness of either side to make concessions that are deemed to be advantageous to their rivals. The result has been that the conflict has remained intense and this to such an extent that it has become common for both sides to level accusations and counter accusations towards each other over their unwillingness to bring about lasting peace. It is essential to note that there are many issues that have to be resolved in order for lasting peace to be brought about in this region, some of which will be discussed in this paper. Among the issues to be resolved are the following; the conflict of identity, socio-psychological barriers, religion, justice and fairness as a barrier, and finally, the strategic decisions taken during the peace process. One of the biggest issues that have to be resolved in order to bring the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to an end is the conflict of identity. This is a situation which developed as a result of the forced removal of Palestinians from their land during the war of 1947 to 1949 which brought about the Palestinian refugee crisis (Flapan 1987, p.4; Morris 2004, p.48). This crisis has become one of the major issues of contention during the peace process because it has brought about a situation where among the points made by Palestinian authorities is that the refugees have a right to return to their ancestral lands. The argument for return is one which is normally bitterly opposed by Israel because it would essentially mean the invalidation of the Jewish state and recognition that it has settled Palestinian land illegally. This is a concession that Israel is unwilling to make because it would essentially bring its development over the last six decades to a halt. Furthermore, most Israelis b elieve that the land that was occupied starting from 1948 is their ancestral land and that
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Communicating Change - Research Paper Example A technique that is often used in the corporate environment to improve communication in the workplace is having weekly meetings between the managers and the staff. Any changes that the firm implements can be discussed during a meeting. Another technique that can be used to improve communication in the workplace is the implementation of a feedback system. A feedback system allows the workers the ability to provide input anonymously. Sometimes the workers prefer to speak anonymously to avoid retaliation from the managers. The feedback system can help a company determine whether the workers accept the changes. Question #3 Maintaining a good corporate image can enhance the brand value of a company. Companies with strong corporate images are preferred by customers (Vonhamme, Lindgreen, Reast, Popering, 2012). As the CEO of Tyco I would develop a strong social responsibility program in order to show the general public that the company has changed and that the mistakes committed by its past CEO were an outlier. I would perform quarterly audits to ensure the firm is free of fraud. Companies must maintain good communication with the outside world because the outside world includes important stakeholder groups such as customers and investors. An issue that could occur that hurts the communications with the outside world is miscommunication. Three tools that can be used to communicate with the outside world are the corporate website, annual report, and news bulletins. Vonhamme, J., Lindgreen, A., Reast, J., Popering, N. (2012). To Do Well by Doing Good: Improving Corporate Image Through Cause Related Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(3). p.259-274. Retrieved March 3, 2013 from EBSCOhost database. Warrick, D. (2011). The Urgent Need for Skilled Transformational Leaders: Integrating Transformational Leadership and Organizational Development. Journal of Leadership,
Monday, November 18, 2019
Health system REPORT - Assignment Example By decreasing the financial support of the public, the health care providers were also allowed and forced to obtain profits on particular types of treatments and the sale of drugs, therefore bringing numerous moral hazard problems, which like in the United States caused a substantial cost inflammation and promoted inequality in accessing the health care services (Giuliano & Droms, 2012). The present health care system is a product of numerous local experiments and health care reforms can be described by a complete structure as shown in the flowchart. Essentially, the system plan builds on a separation of the public into three collections referred to as A, B, and C in line with the job functions. The A-collection consists of employees in all levels of research institutions, public health sector, education system, government, the army, public organizations, and Non-governmental like institutions. The Public Health Service Administration Act from the year 1988 governs this A-collection of individuals. The B-collection is comprised of all types of enterprises in the urban regions, and they are governed by the judgments of the state council concerning the structure of an all-inclusive medical care improvement among workers in the urban areas. The C-collection is made up of the rural area population, and any regulation does not cover them. However, a small portion of those individuals in the C-collection is governed by the new rural cooperative health care strategy. These individuals are typically the farmers situated nearby the south eastern part of the seaside area (Hougaard, ÃËsterdal, & Yu, 2011). Furthermore, there lack certified statistics that display the comparative sizes of the three collections. However, according to Hougaard et al., (2011), a rough estimate exists which shows that collection A comprises of 5%, B comprises of 11%, and C comprises of 64% of the entire population. Moreover, we give emphasis to
Friday, November 15, 2019
Increasing Brand Equity Through Viral Marketing Marketing Essay Together with a friend/business partner, I have been developing a new business venture for the last two years. We are building an online platform for DJs, producers and record labels in the dance music industry (It is like a facebook developed for the dance music industry). It is not finished yet and we are still conducting research. Therefore I am going to write my thesis about this topic to expand my knowledge, with the main advantages to use the outcome of my thesis for my business venture. We will offer services to artists and producers to distribute their music efficiently with the main goal to become famous. Marketing is key in this recent concept and it is a new marketing phenomenon that has not been dealt with properly before by theorists. The fact that it is not a very common topic and it will be more difficult to find relevant papers makes it more challenging and therefore more interesting to write about this topic. Strategic brand management and marketing theories are used as a theoretical reference point when the artist branding practises are being evaluated and interpreted. The focus is on three theoretical concepts, viral marketing, brand awareness, and brand equity. Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Case background: Globalization and digitization of the dance music industry Over the last few years, the dance music industry has been undergoing a revolutionary change. The emergence of Internet is having a significant impact on the supply chain for dance music. Figure 1, based on Premkumars digital distribution strategies (2003), shows that physical distribution has been replaced by digital distribution. Sharing music through the internet has never been this easy. Modern communications technologies have created new opportunities and increased competition. The digitization and globalization of music asks for new ways to promote and distribute music globally. Figure 1. Dance music distribution: shift in the supply chain a) Pre Web1.0 Physical distribution (until 1999) Artist Record Label Distributor Retailer Consumer b) Web1.0 Digital distribution through record labels (1999 2005) Artist Record Label Distributor Consumer c) Web2.0 Digital distribution and promotion through viral marketing (2005 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) Artist Record Label Viral marketing Consumer The advent of the Internet is having a significant impact on both the supply chain for music and the dominance of the big record labels (Graham et al., 2004). The digitization and globalization of the dance music industry has led to a decrease of importance of record labels. Artists do not need record labels anymore to promote and distribute music. With intense competition, it is prudent for record labels to concentrate on their core competency of music creation. This way, record labels can remain truly relevant and valuable to both established and new artists (Crawford, 2001). This change of the supply chain of distributing and promoting music has led to a major structural change in the role of the artist. While the future may look bleak for the major record labels, it looks much more positive for artists and consumers (Graham et al., 2004). The individual artist brand has become more important in order to successfully gain competitive advantage in the dance music industry, which is becoming more crowded and aggressive because of the emergence of internet. It is more difficult for individual artists to be unique and share their sound these days. Because of the increase in importance of the artist brand, artists should understand brand management practices. Consumers should be made aware of the existence of the artist, and therefore brand awareness is very important. Entertainment products, like music, by established names are generally believed to perform better in the market. The charts of top selling offering (e.g. Billboard 200) are primarily populated with established artists, providing ample support for this perception (Moore et al., 2006). In other words, success of artists depends on artist brand awareness. Brand awareness measures consumers knowledge of a brands existence. It refers to the proportion of consumers who know or recognize theÃ brand. Brand awareness is an often undervalued asset; however, awareness has been shown to affect perceptions and even taste. People like the familiar and are prepared to ascribe all sorts of good attitudes to items that are familiar to them. Awareness is often transferred into perceptions of technological superiority and market acceptance (Kover, Aaker and Joachimster, 2000). According to Aaker (1991), brand awareness is a dimension of brand equity. Brand equity refers to that part of the value of a product that is attributable to the brand name. However, this paper will use brand equity in a different way than other theorists do. In the dance music industry, brand awareness plays a key role in the success of an artist, and therefore this thesis focuses on brand awareness and its relation with brand equity. Explicitly or implicitly, it is generally accepted that brand equity plays a role in the sales of entertainment products (Moore et al., 2006). This study measures brand equity as the difference in success between an established artist and a similar unknown artist. Once an artist is established, its success develops like a snowball effect or so-called virtuous circle. Artists should understand how to create and increase their brand equity and benefit from this sweeping change of the dance music industry. In the past, artists were promoted by their record labels and their success depended on the artists and labels network. Word-of-mouth played a big role in the distribution and promotion of music. The emergence of internet and the diminishing power of record labels have made it easier for artists to share music (globally) and therefore reach more people. New communication platforms like Facebook, Youtube, Twitter and blogs increased this phenomenon even more. This has also led to new possibilities for artists to create brand awareness. There are different ways for artists to promote themselves or get promoted to increase brand awareness. Record labels are used to share and distribute music in record shops and on the Web, artist agencies are used to handle and arrange event bookings, and artists themselves can promote themselves in their network. Because of the importance of word-of-mouth marketing to promote artists and music in the dance music industry, and the emergence of internet, artists should look for new ways and possibilities to share, promote, and distribute music through the Web. Viral marketing is a marketing tool that creates word-of-mouth through the internet. Therefore, this thesis will focus on the concept of viral marketing and whether it can be used to increase brand awareness in the dance music industry or not. The goal of viral marketing is to use consumer-to-consumer (or peer-to-peer) communications-as opposed to company-to-consumer communications-to disseminate information about a product or service, thereby leading to more rapid and cost effective adoption by the market. With viral marketing, consumers become promoters of the brand and spread the word to their friends. This thesis will explain the effects of viral marketing on the creation of brand awareness, which will consequently lead to brand image. This study refers to the first phase of the awareness process. 1.2 The problem statement Critics find the availability of free online music as life-threatening, while others think the new music industry will benefit from digitization and globalization in other ways. Describing how artists can benefit from the digitization and globalization of the music industry by creating brand awareness and brand equity through viral marketing is the main goal of this thesis, leading to the formulation of the following problem statement: To what extent does viral marketing create artist brand awareness, and thereby result in an increase of brand equity in the dance music industry? 1.3 Research Questions In order to be able to give an accurate answer to this problem statement, a set of research questions needs to be formulated to get a clear understanding of its context and implementation. The research questions are: What are brand awareness and brand equity and what is their relation? What is viral marketing and is it effective? What is the relation between viral marketing and brand awareness? What is the purpose of using viral marketing to create brand equity in the dance music industry? What is the effect of viral marketing on brand equity in this case? 1.4 Conceptual model Brand image Brand awareness Viral marketing Brand loyalty Brand equity in the dance music industry 1.5 Relevance Academic relevance There are several generally accepted theories about brand equity (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993; etc.). Despite the age of these theories, they are still widely used in research these days. Brand equity is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand (Keller, 1993). Aaker explains the dimensions of brand equity, but his and other theories fail to explain direct causes of brand equity. A comparison between Aaker and Keller will explain the importance of brand awareness in its relation to brand equity. This study develops a new framework based on those existing theories with new practical insights developed for the dance music industry. Research and theories in this area are outdated and need to be revised to be applicable on this case. The focus of this thesis will be on brand awareness, because of its importance in the dance music industry as explained before. Brand equity occurs when the consumer is aware of the brand (Keller, 1993). Therefore, brand awar eness is of great importance in the creation of brand equity it is defined as the first phase of brand equity in this study. Other dimensions of brand equity, like brand loyalty or perceived quality, are established, once consumers are aware of the brand. This thesis does not focus on the effects of brand equity, but only looks at the first phase; brand awareness. This will be applied to the dance music industry, thereby resulting in a deeper insight and understanding on the importance of brand awareness related to the creation of brand equity. This thesis will focus on a relatively new phenomenon of word-of-mouth through the web: viral marketing. Viral marketing has been studied intensively the last years, but little is known about the effectiveness of viral marketing and whether it influences consumers actual behaviours (De Bruyn Lilien, 2008). This study will provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of viral marketing on brand awareness and brand equity, which will explain whether viral marketing is a useful method to use to create brand awareness, resulting in brand equity. Marketing theories about (customer-based) brand equity and viral marketing are used as a theoretical reference point when the artist branding practises are being evaluated and interpreted. Managerial relevance There is much uncertainty and indifference toward the new digital music industry. The visible disadvantages of the consequences (decrease in sales of music) are easier to measure than the indirect advantages of the consequences (exposure, acquaintance, distribution convenience). Internet increased the convenience of sharing music. However, artists themselves find it difficult to share their music effectively, because competition has increased significantly. Internet allows new artists to provide consumers with unprecedented amounts of song samples. This resulted in an enormous increase in music choice. As a consequence, new artists face tough competition in their efforts to get adequate attention on the internet (Crawford, 2001). Creating and managing a real brand is important for an artist to become successful. Because of the increase in importance of the artist brand, artists should understand brand management practices. Consumers should be made aware of the existence of the artist, and therefore brand awareness is very important. Artists and record labels increasingly try to promote themselves via social media, because it is a free and easy way to reach a large amount of people in a short period of time. But little is known about the effects of viral marketing. The effects of viral marketing on brand awareness will be studied in this thesis, in order to provide artists and record labels with a useful and effective tool to increase their brand equity. 1.6 Thesis structure The second chapter will explain of the terms brand awareness and brand equity in the dance music industry. In the third chapter a description of the term viral marketing will be given along with the effects of viral marketing. The interrelationships between the different variables will be explained in the fourth chapter. First the relation between brand awareness and brand equity will be explained and then the relation between viral marketing and brand awareness will be explained. The final chapter will contain the conclusions from the study including a discussion and suggestions will be given for further research. Chapter 2: Brand awareness and brand equity This chapter will shortly explain the terms brand awareness and brand equity. First, existing theories about brand equity and brand awareness are described and explained in order to build a theoretical background for this study. Then, the relation between brand awareness and brand equity will be described. 2.1 What is brand equity? Brand equity is a widely used marketing concept and there are numerous definitions for brand equity. In a general sense, brand equity is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand for example, when certain outcomes result from the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name that would not occur if the same product or service did not have that name (Keller, 1993). Keller (2008) showed and explained the process of building strong brands in his Customer Based Brand Equity model. He focuses on brand-added value which he defines as the differential effect that consumers brand knowledge has on their response to the marketing of that brand. The process consists of the following dimensions: brand salience, brand performance, brand imagery, consumer judgement, consumer feelings and brand resonance. Aaker (1991) defines brand equity as a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand its name and symbols that add to or subtract from t he value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to that firms customers. Aaker identifies five assets; brand awareness, perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand association, and other proprietary brand assets. Keller explains brand equity as a customer-based process consisting of several steps which are related, while Aaker explains brand equity as set of brand dimensions without making a distinction between a firm and its customers. This thesis defines brand equity as the difference in success between an established artist and a similar unknown artist in the dance music industry. Figure 2 visualises the brand equity process in the dance music industry. It combines Kellers conceptual framework of customer-based brand equity and Aakers theory of brand equity to develop a new framework which explains the process of building brand equity. Figure 2. Brand equity in the dance music industry Brand loyalty Brand awareness Brand image According to Keller (1993), Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is aware of the brand and holds some favourable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. The different types of customer-based brand equity are discussed by considering the effects of these dimensions of brand knowledge on brand loyalty and consumer response to product, price, promotion, and distribution strategies. The focus of this thesis will therefore be on brand awareness, and how to create brand awareness, because it is of great importance in the creation of brand equity it is the first phase in the creation process of customer-based brand equity in this study. Brand image, brand loyalty and other dimensions of brand equity occur once brand awareness is established. This process is in line with Stalpers findings (2011); brand equity includes brand awareness and brand image, which subsequently could lead to popularity and brand loyalty. The relation between brand awareness and brand equity will be explained in paragraph 2.3 and a method used to create brand awareness will be explained in chapter 3. 2.2 What is brand awareness? Brand awareness measures consumers knowledge of a brands existence. It refers to the proportion of consumers who know or recognize theÃ brand (Keller, 2001). A brand can increase the demand for a product in several ways. Brand awareness makes it easier for consumers to identify products with the well-known brand namesÃ (Mary W.Sullivan, 1998). Therefore, brands provide information by increasing awareness and serving as a proxy for quality. According to Keller (1993), brand awareness plays an important role in consumer decision making. One reason Keller mentions, is that brand awareness can affect decisions about brands in the consideration set, even if there are essentially no other brand associations. Consumers tend to prefer familiar, well-established brands. A minimum level of brand awareness may be sufficient for product choice, even in the absence of a well-formed attitude (Bettman and Park 1980; Hoyer and Brown 1990; Park and Lessig 1981). In this thesis, artist brand awareness refers to the extent that a consumer knows or recognizes an artist. Chapter 4 will explain why brand awareness is of great importance in the dance music industry. 2.3 Brand awareness and brand equity In contrary to other theories about brand equity, this thesis only focuses on the relation between brand awareness and brand equity. As explained before in previous paragraphs, brand equity occurs when the consumer is aware of the brand (Keller, 1993). Once brand awareness and thus brand equity is established, we can look at the effects of the dimensions of brand equity on brand loyalty and consumer response to different strategies. According to Keller (1993), high levels of brand awareness and a positive brand image should increase the probability of brand choice, as well as produce greater consumer (and retailer) loyalty and decrease vulnerability to competitive marketing actions. Chapter 3: Viral marketing The phenomenon viral marketing will be explained in this chapter. The goal of this chapter is to get a better understanding of viral marketing and its effectiveness. Advantages and disadvantages will be explained. The final paragraph will explain how viral marketing can be used to create brand awareness. 3.1 What is viral marketing? Marketers are looking for new ways of communicating with customers and creating a dialogue with customers. The growth and evolution of the internet has led to the creation of a new format of word-of-mouth; viral marketing through new media. It is the online version of word-of-mouth or so-called network marketing. The goal of viral marketing is to use consumer-to-consumer (or peer-to-peer) communications-as opposed to company-to-consumer communications-to disseminate information about a product or service, thereby leading to more rapid and cost effective adoption by the market (Krishnamurthy, 2001). Viral marketing and its offline counterpart word-of-mouth differ in two ways (De Bruyn Lilien, 2008).: Viral marketing practices are electronic by nature; there is no face-to-face communication. Viral marketing referrals are usually unsolicited, that is, they are sent to recipients who are not looking for information, and hence are not necessarily willing to pay attention to them. According to the same authors, Viral marketing occurs when consumers willingly become promoters of a product or service and spread the words to their friends; they are driven to do so either through an explicit incentive (e.g., financial incentives, need to create network externalities) or simply out of a desire to share the product benefits with friends (e.g., fun, intriguing, valuable for others). Viral marketing utilizes multiple new media channels such as Facebook, YouTube, Google, and Twitter, which enable customers to take a more active role as market players and reach (and be reached by) almost everyone, anywhere, and anytime. These new media threaten long established business models and corporate strategies, but also provide ample opportunities for growth through new adaptive strategies (Hennig-Thurau et. Al, 2010). Social media is essentially a new form of virtual word-of-mouth marketing. It is harnessing different social media networks. Viral marketing is a marketing strategy that creates a buzz around a product/service. It essentially acts like a virus, exploding the message to the masses, which can be used among all types of media, including social media. 3.2 What are disadvantages of viral marketing? From the last paragraph, it can be concluded that viral marketing works extremely rapid and the transmission of the marketing message is comparatively inexpensive. This all sounds promising, but marketers need to be aware of potential risks connected to viral marketing. Viral marketing is a relatively new phenomenon and the effects are difficult to measure (De Bruyn Lilien, 2008). The next paragraph will explain the effectiveness of viral marketing. According to Wuyts et Al (2010), a viral marketing campaign relies entirely on consumers to spread it, which makes it impossible for marketers to further control this process once the message spreads over the Web as a virus. In addition, consumers can edit a message once they will forward it to their peers, which makes it difficult to control the content of the message itself. Furthermore, consumers that unwillingly receive messages could consider such messages as spam, which may damage a brand. Finally, a marketer cannot control a campaigns timing (Welker, 2002). Control can thus be seen as the most important and challenging factor of a viral marketing campaign in order to maintain a good relationship with consumers. 3.3 Is viral marketing effective? Previous examples of successful viral marketing campaigns indicate that viral marketing could be effective. The most famous viral marketing campaign that put viral marketing on the map was the campaign by Hotmail in 1996. It helped Hotmail become the leading personal web-based email service provider. Hotmail users forwarded messages with a small endnote: P.S. Get your free email at Hotmail. With this campaign, Hotmail recruited 12 million subscribers in 18 months with a marketing budget of only $500 000 (Kirby and Marsen, 2006). As stated in previous paragraphs, it is important for marketers to understand the process and pitfalls of viral marketing in order to create a successful viral marketing campaign. De Bruyn Lilien (2008) support this statement: To better understand why and how viral marketing can be effective, we must understand its pass-along process and its underlying mechanisms of influence. The same authors say that by leveraging the power of interpersonal networks to promote a product or service, viral marketing campaigns are an effective means to transform communication networks into influence networks capturing recipients attention, triggering interest, and eventually leading to adoption or sales. But not all social networks are equally effective. It seems that networks of friends (as opposed to networks of professionals or colleagues) are more suited to the rapid and effective diffusion of peer-to-peer online referrals. 3.4 Viral marketing and brand awareness Viral marketing through new media is a relatively new phenomenon. As explained in the previous paragraph, viral marketing is considered as an effective tool to transform (electronic) communication networks into influence networks. In order to explain the relation between viral marketing and brand awareness, the marketing objectives of viral marketing should be explained first. Viral marketing through new media on the Internet is used to increase brand awareness or achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) and to create market share in a short period of time on a shoestring promotion budget (Krishnamurthy, 2001). De Bruyn Lilien (2008) developed a multi-stage model of word-of-mouth influence through viral marketing, which includes the following stages: Awareness:Ã The consumer knows the alternative exists, but may not have either interest in it or sufficient information to understand its possible benefits. Interest. The consumer is aware, develops some interest, and hence decides to learn more about the product. Final decision. The consumer has now taken an observable action, a purchase of a good or service or the sustained adoption of an innovation. As discussed before, viral marketing has some pitfalls. But what is this relation with brand awareness? Once the message is spread over the Web, it is impossible for a marketer to control this process and influencing what and how the message will be spread. This could lead to negative publicity. But does this harm a brand? Although popular wisdom suggests that any publicity is good publicity, prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. However, according to a study by Berger et Al (2010) negative publicity could lead to positive outcomes. They argue that negative publicity can increase purchase likelihood and sales by increasing product awareness. This means that the old wisdom could be true in terms of creating awareness: any publicity is good publicity. Chapter 4: Interrelationship between variables Chapter 4 will apply all the previously described relations on the dance music industry. A more practical insight will be given about the meaning of brand awareness, brand equity and viral marketing within the dance music industry. The first paragraph will focus on brand awareness and brand equity. The final paragraph will explain how viral marketing can be applied in the dance music industry. 4.1 Brand awareness and brand equity in the dance music industry Brand equity includes awareness and image of a brand, which consequently could lead to a certain level of popularity and brand loyalty. Products and services with a strong brand are expected to comprise a higher quality. When an established artist with a strong brand releases a new song, consumers will expect high quality based on the experience that they have with that particular artist. As a consequence, consumers perceive less risk, and brand loyalty will be higher, which will make them less price sensitive. Furthermore, established, popular artists are able to charge more for their gigs (shows), because of their strong brand (Stalpers, 2011). Understanding how to reach high levels of brand equity by creating a strong brand is therefore important for artists to become successful. Especially in the dance music industry, brand awareness is important, because in general consumers will particularly listen to music from artists they know or recognize. Because of the enormous availability and supply of online dance music, consumers will filter music based on different aspects like genre or recognition. To create brand awareness, artists should understand brand practices to know how to position themselves in the market as a brand. The individual artist brand is important in order to successfully gain competitive advantage in the dance music industry, because established artists, like established brands, have name recognition, and have developed a certain image, and, furthermore, are associated with particular type of products (Levin et al, 1997). The presence of a recognized artist signals quality to the prospective consumer much as a trusted brand name implies quality in a product. 4.2 Viral marketing in the dance music industry As stated before, networking plays a large role in the dance music industry, especially compared to the general (mainstream) music industry. This is due to the fact that DJs in the dance music industry do not only play their own music, but also others work. A rock band, for example, only performs its own songs, but a DJ in the electronic dance music industry plays songs from several artists. They discover new music by sharing music with their colleagues and friends. Therefore networking and word-of-mouth is very important in this particular industry. As explained before, viral marketing occurs when consumers willingly become promoters of an artist and spread the words to their friends; they are driven to do so either through an explicit incentive (e.g., financial incentives, need to create network externalities) or simply out of a desire to share the product benefits with friends (e.g., fun, intriguing, valuable for others). Especially the last incentive (desire) would be an applicable incentive for consumers to share music. Also record labels can benefit from viral marketing, because they can guide artists to create a successful viral marketing campaign. The internet made it difficult for new artists to get adequate attention. These new artists can turn to record labels, which can assist them in getting attention through intense marketing efforts. Record labels can also facilitate the music creation and distribution process for these new artists (Crawford, 2001). Viral marketing is useful for artists because it is inexpensive and fast, as explained before. Welker (2002) confirms this statement: Obviously the call for cost reduction in marketing communication makes it necessary to consider viral strategies which are a new interpretation of the good old word-of-mouth-paradigm (Welker, 2002). The main goal for new artists is to create awareness. As concluded in paragraph 3.4; any publicity is good publicity to create awareness. Does this also apply to new, unknown artists in the dance music industry? According to the study by Berger et Al (2010), negative publicity should have differential effects on established versus unknown products. They found out that negative reviews hurt the sales of books, in this case, by well known authors, but it increased sales of books that had lower prior awareness. This confirms the statement that any publicity, whether positive or negative, increases or creates awareness. For a new artist it means that the main downside of viral marketing, namely control of the message, does not apply, because what and how the message will be spread is not important, the fact that it is spread is what counts. Chapter 5: Conclusion, discussion and recommendation This chapter will summarize the findings, discuss limitations and implications, and make recommendations for future research. The first paragraph will start with a short, but clear, answer on the problem statement, following by a more extensive conclusion. 5.1.1 Problem Statement The problem statement of this paper is formulated as follows: To what extent does
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Sonnet Genre Combining with Figurative Language Compare how the conventions of the sonnet genre combine with figurative language to create meaning in at least two texts. Originating in Italy, the sonnet was established by Petrarch in the 14th century as a major form of love poetry, and came to be adopted in England in the 16th century (Oxford Literary terms). Overtime there have been different types of sonnets written, for example the Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet, the English (Shakespearean) sonnet and the Spenserian sonnet. Each of these sonnets have there own conventions and use different types of poetic language to help create meaning for the reader. For the purpose of this essay we will look at how the conventions of sonnets combine specifically with figurative language to create meaning. We will begin by looking briefly at the three types of sonnet conventions before moving on to look at William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSonnet 18Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSonnet 73Ã¢â¬â¢ to show how meaning is created through the combination of conventions and figurative language. As earlier mentioned, there are different types of sonnet, the major types being Italian, Shakespearean and Spenserian, each having their own sonnet form. All forms generally have some common features, such as comprising of fourteen lines and being written in iambic pentameter. The Italian sonnet has an eight-line octave, which usually raises an issue/argument followed by a six-line sestet where the issue/argument is resolved. The octave has a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA, and the sestet can have either two or three rhyming sounds arranged in a variety of ways, for example CDCDCD, CDDCDC, CDECDE thus making the sestet very flexible. The Shakespearean sonnet comprises of... ...ar conventions but developed its argument much like the Italian sonnet. This shows how the English form and Italian argument structure compliment each other. The conventions of both these sonnets did create meaning but this was further enhanced with the use of figurative language. In Ã¢â¬Ësonnet 73Ã¢â¬â¢ the metaphors were used to show the speaker growing old and then extended throughout the sonnet, which helped to emphasize the sonnets central meaning. Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËSonnet 18Ã¢â¬â¢ personification was used to create an image in the readers head of an amazingly beautiful woman who is incomparable to even the nicest season, summer. I conclude that on there own both conventions and figurative language create meaning but when combined the meaning is enhanced. This is due to figurative language being able to create images for the reader and add mood and tension to a sonnet.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Veterinary Technicians must have the desire and ability to do it all, from taking blood of a sick family pet to restraining that mopey miniature poodle that has no desire to be at the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office. Veterinary technicians do it all. If there were a dream career out there for me it definitely would be that of a veterinary technician. To become a certified veterinary technician one must attend a two or three year American Veterinarian Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician program.After earning the associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in the technology program one must then take their state board exam, in the state in which they live so they can license practice. In this exam there are oral, written and practical portions. Currently there are 40 states and provinces that certify and register licensed technicians. Volunteering at a vet clinic is the most rewarding opportunity that one could ever have. I have been volunteering in one for three years.Recently a job oppo rtunity has opened for me to be able to work part time walking dogs, cleaning kennels, administering medications and giving baths as a kennel helper which is a good experience towards my goal to be a veterinary technician. Employment of veterinary technicians is expected to grow 52% from 2010 to 2020. This is much faster than the average for all other occupations. A growing pet population is going to require more people to work in this field. In rural areas job opportunities are expected to be excellent.On average veterinary technicianÃ¢â¬â¢s make $29,710 per year or $14. 28 per hour. Similar occupations are animal care and service workers, medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, veterinary assistants, and veterinarians. Veterinary technicianÃ¢â¬â¢s duties that are performed on a daily basis and some of the most important are the preliminary examinations of the patient as well as getting a complete medical history of that patient. This helps the doctor beg in the diagnosis process and what tests they would like to perform on the patient.Some other duties that a veterinary technician performs are caring for hospitalized patients, such as monitoring fluids as well as administering medications around the clock. Other duties that it entails are radiology as well as performing laboratory procedures such as blood work, fecal analyses and urine analyses and ear exams. Veterinary technicians donÃ¢â¬â¢t just have to work at an animal hospital. They can also work at certain shelters and humane societies, veterinary supply companies, diagnostic laboratories, and some eterinary technicians work at zoo and wildlife centers. Also, state and national park systems, some cities, and some universities or colleges require the services of veterinary technicians. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s working at a small animal practice, a large animal practice or even working at a shelter, as long as you are helping animals it is rewarding in my eyes to get them happy and healthy again. Working at a veterinary clinic is enabling me to achieve my education goals, because I am required to shadow a licensed veterinarian or work in a licensed veterinary clinic/hospital.This is a great benefit because my coworkers are always asking me questions and explaining the answers if I do not know them. A lot of the emergencies that come into the clinic are some that I have read in my textbook as well, which helps me better assist the doctor, the patient, and the family. Seeing a variety of problems that animals have that come into the clinic can be difficult especially when they are not able to talk to us and tell us what the problem is. This makes the challenge all the more rewarding when you can see that your knowledge, concern, and expertise has made an animal healthy and its owners happy again.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Ultima, Bless Me Essays Ultima, Bless Me Essay Ultima, Bless Me Essay and watches over its people. He asks Ultima about this legend, she tells him that it is true. This answer makes him start doubting the Christian Church. Ultima helps him to find his own path but it could lead him away from the Church. The second event that affects AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s faith, is when Lucas his friend is dying of the witches curse. doctors and priest s come to try and save him but they can not. The 3rd challenge to his ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s Faith is when UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s Power is greater than the churches, when she removes the curse of the Tellez family. The author portrays Ultima as a mysterious, magical and luminous character that appears in AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s life the day he was born. Ã¢â¬Å" A cry came to my throat, and I wanted to shout it and run in the beauty I had foundÃ¢â¬ (pag. 12). Antonio admired Ultima and praised her presence because every time she was around, he felt a deep sense of warmth and comfort. Ã¢â¬Å" As Ultima walked past me I smelled the sweet fragrance of herbs (pag ) The author uses the name Ultima with a purpose. Ultima is a Spanish word meaning ultimate or the end. Ultima is special for Antonio since the first time he sees her. She is the unification between the beginning and the end. She is the mentor and guide who helps him from the beginning to find his path to reconcile his cultural and religious conflicts. Ultima has an strong bond of spiritu al affection with Antonio. He has to suffer the rejection of people attacking her as a witch. Ultima is considered a witch with black powers. But Anaya shows us that Ultima is a witch not like Trementina sisters, Ultima is a witch with white power. She uses her power to help people not hurt them. In the events discussed before, Antonio seems to question his religion. He doubts his desire to be a Priest. At the beginning, he attends church willingly and i very interested in Religion. He is eager to learn the Catholic prayers and take Communion classes to pleased his mother religious conditioning. He wonder if God is still alive or exist, because he recalls all the times when God has failed where Ultima has succeeded. In AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, the Priest should have no trouble at all with witches, since their powers are nothing compared to the all strength manifested in the priest by the Church. Antonio believes the power of God is so potent, that Ã¢â¬Å"all you have to do is to lift your right hand and cross your right thumbs over your first finger and form the sign of the cross. No evil can challenge that crossÃ¢â¬ (pag 55). 4 With many failures and no answers from God, he is away from Catholicism so that he questions a God in whom he has no more trust or strong feelings. He questions GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love and ability to know all and see all, considering that perhapsÃ¢â¬ God is to busy in Heaven to worry or care about usÃ¢â¬ (pag 187). The crucial event that leads Antonio disbelief in God is his first communion. When the answers do not come from God, he is extremely disillusioned, wondering why Ã¢â¬Å"there was only silenceÃ¢â¬ (pag 221). At this point, he becomes very unsatisfied with the Catholic religion, wanting something more concrete and tangible like the Golden Carp. Episode 22 finds him trying to pray the Act of Contrition for his friend Florence, but he knows that it is useless because Florence is an atheist. Antonio is also failing his motherÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to be a Priest. He begins to abandon the traditional beliefs that he had nurtured in his heart for so long. Ultima advises Antonio to make his own religious choices: Ã¢â¬Å" I cannot tell you what to believeÃ¢â¬ ¦. As you grow into manhood you must find your own truthsÃ¢â¬ (pag 119). The author seems to convey and compare those difficult moments in AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s journey as it happens in our daily lives. When we are in conflict, we enter in an area of darkness and turbulence as AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Anaya uses in story elements and symbols of nature to represent the frightening and unsafe. Stormy weather that represent conflict, tension that disrupts the peace and harmony. The wind and thunder represent forces of disturbances, Ã¢â¬Å" a flash of lighting struck and out of the thunder a dark figure stepped forthÃ¢â¬ (pag 71). Anaya creates the perfect scene to sense the feelings of turbulence and the agitation during the story. 5 The author mentions the Owl. The Owl is a major symbol in Hispanic Culture, it is an evil bird. It is considered a bad luck. However, in this story the owl is meant to be protector, UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s soul. It represents life force, and power of religious mysticism. The Virgin of Guadalupe, the name of the Town: represents forgiveness and understanding. AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s mother has a two foot big statue of the Virgin. He loves the Virgin more than any of the saints because of what she represents. The Golden Carp as a symbol that represents an alternative religion to the Catholicism that Antonio was raised in. The imagery used to describe AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s family also links the human world to the wider cosmo, The family name Marez means Ã¢â¬Å"seaÃ¢â¬ like AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestor. The men of the llano are known as men of the sea, because they are wild like the ocean. In contrast, the men from the farms along the rivers, where AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s mother comes from, are associated with the moon. This can be seen in their name Lunas and in the village where they live. El Puerto de la Luna, which means the door of the moon. The Lunas live all aspect of their lives in harmony with the changing phases of the moon. . The reader notices the repetition of the number three. The three sources of understand for Antonio (Ultima, God and Golden Carp). The three deaths that Antonio witnesses, (Lupito, Narciso and Tenorio). And The three Trementina Sisters. The number Three is related to Blessed Trinity. God is one God, He exists in three distinc persons, God, Son and the Holy Spirit. Anaya uses powerful images to evoke multiple responses from his headers. 6 Anaya the narrator, sets up a dialogue between Antonio and Ultima. He admits that he uses his personal experience and those of others in his childhood to construct the story. He uses Antonio as reliable narrator whom the readers can trust. Finally, at the end, Antonio understands the balance Ultima has taught him; he must be Marez and Luna and have a balance between all religious beliefs to truly be a man of learning. In the story Ultima appears to him and explains that he must see beyond himself: Ã¢â¬Å"You have to been seeing only partsÃ¢â¬ ¦and not looking beyond into the great cycle that binds us all Ã¢â¬Å" (121). He learns all beliefs are bound together into a balanced system. Ultima allows him the freedom to make his own decisions. Antonio finds his inner strength, when he goes to stay with his uncles in El Puerto for the summer. Ultima knows that when he returns he will be a different person. Ã¢â¬Å"Be prepared to see things change when you returnÃ¢â¬ ¦. You are growing, and growth is change. Accept the change, make it part of your strengthÃ¢â¬ (pag. 245). Antonio discovers a way to reconcile his conflicting religion and beliefs as different issues that occur in his life. He must take the best characteristics of the Mares and Lunas. Also, accept different religion and beliefs to create his personal faith and make himself stronger. Ã¢â¬Å" Maybe I do not have to be just Marez, or Luna, perhaps I can be bothÃ¢â¬ (pag 247). 7 Anaya includes in the story the value of friendship. It was a very important aspect of AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Although his friends were involved in a lot of conflicts, their bond never did not break. During the story the author conveys to the readers about change as a process of life. The process of entering the adolescence is simile as a loss that is to be mourned and accepted. Antonio senses that his friends are also changing Ã¢â¬Å"Vitamina Kid does not want to race anymoreÃ¢â¬ Antonio mourns the loss of Ã¢â¬Å"something goodÃ¢â¬ . When Ultima dies, he is able to understand the link between change and violence, chaos and harmony. UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s death serves to reinstate the harmony of the world. He comforts himself at the end of the story, because he understands he had changed Ã¢â¬Å"no more a childÃ¢â¬ . He understands that Death is a natural cycle of life and a change that is necessary for life to continue. He knows that Ultima is someone especial and she makes a big impact in his life. Anaya expresses his point through the story that not everyone has the same truth. We find our own truth Ã¢â¬Å"by testing, each and everything that comes your way and not missing outÃ¢â¬ (pag. 119). Through UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings, we see Anaya challenging the values of the traditional Christian Church. The author intends to suggests the need for a more holistic or diverse view of religion. Anaya uses Ultima her character as a metaphor of understanding, acceptance and tolerance. Her actions show us, that the understanding is based in building the character according experiences of life. In this way, a person cannot think in terms of absolutes. 8 Antonio finally learns the strength of truths is to explore and patiently accept and growth. Ã¢â¬Å"But as you growth into manhood you must not despair of life, but gather strength to sustain youÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å" (pag 245) Ultima is a firm believer in tolerance and understanding. She teaches that different belief system can offer equally valid way of understanding the world. Meaning that not matter if it is religion, identity or love, we should learn to open our minds and search what are really matter to us.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The President Makes Grammatical Errors Too! Tenet vs. Tenant and Obamas Tucson Speech I got an email from my friend Seth Nowak on January 13, 2011 reporting, Ã¢â¬Å"Obama said Ã¢â¬ËtenentÃ¢â¬â¢ in his speech last night.Ã One term president.Ã¢â¬ The speech to which Seth was referring is the moving, poignant speech Obama delivered following the shooting rampage in Tucson.Ã Obviously Seth was joking to me, The Essay Expert, that a small error like mixing up Ã¢â¬Å"tenetÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"tenantÃ¢â¬ would affect (not effect) ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s approval rating. Just a few days before, I had corrected Seth when he said Ã¢â¬Å"tenentÃ¢â¬ (or Ã¢â¬Å"tenantÃ¢â¬ he was speaking not writing, so I canÃ¢â¬â¢t be sure) when he meant Ã¢â¬Å"tenet.Ã¢â¬ Ã Thus he could not help but notice ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s slip of tongue. To clarify, Ã¢â¬Å"tenetÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"any opinion, principle, doctrine, dogma, etc., esp. one held as true by members of a profession, group, or movement.Ã¢â¬ A tenant, on the other hand, is a person, a group of persons, or an entity occupying a space, usually a rental space (my definition). Ã¢â¬Å"TenentÃ¢â¬ is not a word in modern English, though in the interests of full disclosure, it is listed on dictionary.com as Ã¢â¬Å"Obs.Ã¢â¬ (Obsolete).Ã It does not appear anywhere in the dictionary on my shelf, WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (copyright 1987, the year I headed to college Ã¢â¬â and if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not obsolete, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what is). ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s spoken sentence was as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"They were fulfilling a central tenant[sic] of the democracy envisioned by our founders.Ã¢â¬ The transcriber was kind to our President. Ã The text Ã¢â¬Å"tenant[sic]Ã¢â¬ does not appear in the transcription; instead, the official version in The New York Times reads, Ã¢â¬Å"They were fulfilling a central tenet.Ã¢â¬ The day before ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, I had put Ã¢â¬Å"tenant/tenetÃ¢â¬ on my list of Top 10 Grammatical Errors of 2011 (scheduled for publication in December 2011).Ã Why?Ã Because inside of one week in January, not including ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, I heard Ã¢â¬Å"tenantÃ¢â¬ used incorrectly twice: once by Seth as reported above, and once in a draft of a law school application essay.Ã I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t quote that essay here for reasons of confidentiality, but hereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a sentence in a draft law school application essay I received a year ago: Ã¢â¬Å"The general tenants of my thesis was that developing a national childcare system would contribute to the economy and better the lives of all Canadians.Ã¢â¬ This sentence has two problems:Ã First, she meant Ã¢â¬Å"tenetÃ¢â¬ ; and second, even if Ã¢â¬Å"tenantsÃ¢â¬ were correct, the verb Ã¢â¬Å"wasÃ¢â¬ is singular whereas Ã¢â¬Å"tenantsÃ¢â¬ is plural. Ã This client was not accepted into any Canadian law schools, despite the fact that her errors were corrected.Ã She did get accepted in England. The moral of the story:Ã If you want to get into law school, or be elected for a second term, get straight about the difference between Ã¢â¬Å"tenetÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tenant.Ã¢â¬ Ã I understand that Ã¢â¬Å"nÃ¢â¬ sound just wants to come out somehow, but try to keep it in check. So what do you think?Ã One term or two?Ã Perhaps thatÃ¢â¬â¢s really the important question here.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Essay Example I strongly feel that the social setting within which colleges are run is perfectly ideal for people from different backgrounds to build relationships. These relationships are not, however, confined to partnerships of love. People from different races end up in the same classes and can, therefore, appreciate the beauty of human diversity at a better scale. Colleges can also be viewed as impacting positively on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ leisure time. I cannot start to think of how boring life would be if these four years were spent otherwise or elsewhere other than in college. To qualify this argument, it is important to think of the many professional athletes that build their careers during their stay in college. Most professional baseball, basketball, tennis and even boxing players make their careers out of their talents identified mostly during college. Growing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s talent forms part of the reasons why most people end up enrolling in colleges (Caldwell, pp 514). It is unimaginable of how crooked citizens would be if they did not pass through the college system of education. It is here that behaviors are shaped, and morals of otherwise immoral people perfected. To a great extent, parents too are beneficiaries of the college system. Their sons and daughters are taught about life, by life itself, away from home. This way, parents do not have to go through the monotonous duty of shaping their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards life. In a nutshell, college education can be seen as an avenue of civilization. Most business partners, the world over, have a previously shared life. This shared life usually ends up being their college life. Students have the chance, albeit unknowingly, in fostering future business partnerships while they are still in college. It happens more often that the supplier of raw materials to a manufacturing company was a fellow student to the founder of the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Management Practices - Research Paper Example Management Practices in Coca Cola Coca-Cola is considered as one the biggest beverage companies operating in almost 200 nations. To operate in the international markets, it requires appropriate management practices in every level of the company (SAP AG, 2001). Planning Planning is the preliminary stage of any task whether it is production or launching of a new product. It is necessary for a company to plan what should be done and without proper planning, the business objectives cannot be achieved. In case of Coca-Cola, the planning stage involves development of overall strategy by keeping in mind the mission and the objectives of the company. The planning in Coca-Cola includes mapping out how precisely the company can accomplish a particular objective. One of the most significant objectives of Coca-Cola with respect to human resources is succession planning which refers to the identification, evaluation and improvement of internal employees in order to achieve a single objective i.e. prepare appropriate people for the senior management position. The succession planning procedure in Coca-Cola comprises outlining the condition of the employees and planning for management steadiness in the incident of employee turnover or departure. Similarly, the other significant objective of Coca-Cola with respect to business is marketing planning. The marketing planning is conducted in order to raise the sales of its products. The marketing planning of Coca-Cola consists of activities such as assessing the marketing environment, making competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis, decide upon suitable and attractive advertisements, inventory planning, planning the sales staff and planning the marketing mix elements (Curd, n.d.). Leading A manager in an organization is required to lead the employee towards the planned activities in order to accomplish the organizational objectives. The leading stage in any business involves aspects such as motivating, communicating, managing and inspiring empl oyees towards higher performance. It necessitates managers to train, assist and solve any issue of the employees while performing tasks. Leading requires the capability to establish value for the company towards the employees (Plunkett, Attner & Allen, 2011). Leading in any organization is demarcated as the procedure of motivating people so that they can contribute their best effort towards the organizational as well as team objectives. Leading managers can help employees so that they can easily fulfill their own desires and use their potential while performing tasks (Ng, 2011). Coca-Cola practices the leading function of management by providing training, on-the-job learning, and coaching to the employees. The objective of leading the workforces is to ensure that employees are provided with all necessary assistance they require for performing effectively in the company. Coca-Cola believes that the success of the company relies on the encouraged and dedicated employees. For this reas on, the company provides reward to the employees. Coca-Cola offers competitive compensation and other fringe benefits in order to attract and retain the most capable employees. It helps to drive the business forward. Coca-Cola assumes the training and development activities quite seriously, as it is a part of leading the people in the organization. It constantly invests on these activities with the intention of strengthening the