Friday, May 31, 2019

Hobbit: From Childrens Story to Mythic Creation Essay -- Literature F

Hobbit From Childrens Story to Mythic Creation Mr. Baggins began as a comic tommyrot among conventional and inconsistent fairy-tale dwarves, and got drawn into the edge of it - so that even Sauron the terrible peeped over the edge.-J.R.R Tolkien, letter to his publisher (quoted in Carpenter 1977, 182). The Hobbit started as little more than(prenominal) than a bedtime story for Tolkiens children. Like most of his fellow academics, Tolkien viewed fantasy as limited to childhood. The result was a book written in a chatty, slack style that contrasts sharply with that of its serious successors. The narrator makes frequent patronising and intrusive asides, such as And what would you do, if an uninvited dwarf came and hung his things up in your hall without a word of explanation? (H, 18). The language approximates baby-talk at times (nasty, dirty wet hole oozy smell), and modifiers (terribly, lots and lots) abound. Many critics, including Tolkien himself, claim viewed this as the c hief weakness of the book. Although the tone does evoke the oral tradition through which myths were originally created, it detracts from the power of the book. It renders villains ar more comic than truly threatening, its heroes more endearing than awe-inspiring. One commentator feels that The Hobbit lacks a certain intellectual weight and deserves little serious, purely literary criticism (Helms 1974 53). The important words here are purely literary. The novel cannot be studied in isolation, nevertheless must be seen against the broader backdrop of Tolkiens literary philosophy and the entire mythic tradition. For the writing of The Hobbit both influenced and was influenced by the profound intellectual change its author was undergoing, namely t... ...teaching its author the immense possibilities of fantasy. It itself does not exhaust these possibilities, but merely begins to explore them. It starts unambitiously, but in drawing from the rich store of world folklore and the autho rs imagination, soon develops into a myth that, like all good fantasy, speaks as clearly to the mythopoetic imagination like a shot as it did in Tolkiens time. Bibliography Carpenter, H. 1977. J.R.R. Tolkien A Biography. London George Allen & Unwin. Helms, R. 1974. Myth, Magic and Meaning in Tolkiens World. London Granada Publishing. Nitshe, J.C. 1979. Tolkiens Art A Mythology for England. New York St. Martins. ONeill, T.R. 1979. The Individuated Hobbit. Boston Hougton Mifflin. Rogers, D. & Rogers, I.A. 1980. J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston Twayne. Tolkien, J.R.R. 1937. The Hobbit. London George Allen & Unwin.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Systematic Destruction of Womens Agency in Juárez, Mexico :: Gender Culture Murder Womens Agency Papers

The Systematic Destruction of Womens Agency in Jurez, MexicoAs citizens, people rely on the state as an agent that acts on their behalf, by providing them with benefits such as basic protection. However, the state itself derives its power (or position) from the fact that its citizens give up some of their individual agency in exchange for the benefits that belonging to a state provides. People are, thus, both the creators and the subjects of the state. In Jurez, Mexico the state has been shaped by a patriarchy that is very oppressive to women. The women are then subjects to this very oppressive state. Virginia Woolf claims that these women can gain agency and freedom by obtaining economic independence. But, in the case of Jurez, Mexico this economic freedom has deadly effects. Woolfs business is very limiting and applied to a much more ideal situation. In this essay I volition explore the climate in Jurez that seems to kindle Woolfs theory wrong. I will also look at how her cla ims can offer hope to the women of Jurez so that they can alter the climate so that everyone has agency not just the men and the state.Mexican culture has always placed the women in the home. Placement in the private sphere without the opportunity to earn property has always limited womens agency and freedom. Men behave typically held the position of power because of their economic independence. As the holders of power in the public sphere, men have created a patriarchy in which the opinions have governed the laws that are passed within Mexico. Before the murders in Jurez began, and even still, women were offered very little protection by the government particularly when it came to violence and rape. The machismo culture in Mexico sets up a climate in which young women can be beaten raped and murdered with little to no consequences. Domestic abuse laws in Mexico, state that a woman may not file domestic abuse charges if her wounds heal before the end of 15 days. Women are constri cted to the private sphere according to Mexican culture. The women give up their rights to be in the public sphere with the hope and understanding that they will be protected in the private sphere. They, however, do not receive this protection. Men can essentially beat their wives with no consequence. Additionally, rape laws are very lax.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

No Need to Worry about Our Forests and Trees :: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays

No Need to Worry about Our Forests and TreesTrees have been with us since the beginning of time. We have been using its products forjust as long. They have been workoutd to fashion weapons, used as wheels, used for us towrite with and to have something to write on. Most importantly they have been andcontinue to be used to provide shelter for us. I feel trees are an important resource forus and to stop using this important resource would be an detriment to society. Trees arethere to be admired and to help our ecosystem survive but they are also there to providefor the things we take away in life. An important cause of how trees are helping masses in extraordinary ways in by the useof tree products as cancer drugs. According to Sally Christensen, taxol is created byusing three one hundred year old pacific yew trees or roughly sixty pounds of bark.Taxol is very helpful in fighting ovarian cancer when conventional methods no longerwork. This drug has been responsible for saving man y lives (Christensen 552). Christensenherself was saved with this drug. Sallie Tillsdale calls Christensen very selfish forkilling trees to help save herself. She says it is people versus trees. I feel it is lifeversus life. If a few trees have to be cut down so a person can go on living then this isa choice that I as a person am willing to make. No one is going to tell me that I cannothave a chance at life because a group of environmentalists say that is wrong. It isquoted by Walter T. Stace, If a mans actions were wholly determined by chains of causes stretching back into the remote past, so that they could be predicted beforehand by amind which knew all the causes, it was assumed that they could not in that case befree. bingle of the main needs of lumber is for building homes. This need skyrocketed after the1950s. The need for new housing was tremendous and the need for lumber just kept growing.The need for lumber dramatically increased when people wanted shaker style roofs, woo dflooring and wood siding (Robinson 25). Today things have changed slightly. Now we usevinyl siding for our homes. So that has helped a little. But we still need to frame ahouse so that it will stand up and at this point I do not know of anything else that willget the job done.

History of Indonesia :: essays research papers

Early empiresBy the time of the European Renaissance, the islands of Java and Sumatra had already enjoyed a thousand-year heritage of civilization spanning two major empires. During the 7th to 14th centuries, the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya flourished on Sumatra. Chinese traveller I Ching visited its capital, Palembang, around 670. At its peak, the Srivijaya Empire reached as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. Also by the 14th century, the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit had risen in eastern Java. Gajah Mada, the empires chief minister from 1331 to 1364, succeeded in gaining loyalty from most of what is now modern Indonesia and much of the Malay archipelago as well. Legacies from Gajah Madas time include a codification of law and an epic poem. Reasons for the fall of these empires remain obscure. Islam arrived in Indonesia sometime during the 12th century and, through assimilation, supplanted Hinduism by the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Bali, however, remains o verwhelmingly Hindu. In the eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic missionaries were active in the 16th and 17th centuries, and, currently, there are large communities of both religions on these islands. Colonial eraBeginning in 1602 the Dutch gradually established themselves as rulers of what is now Indonesia, exploiting the fractionalization of the small kingdoms that had replaced Majapahit. The most notable exception was Portuguese Timor, which remained under Portuguese rule until 1975 when it was invaded and occupied, becoming the Indonesia res publica of East Timor. The Netherlands controlled Indonesia for almost 350 years, excluding a short period of British rule in part of the islands after Anglo-Dutch Java War and the Japanese occupation during dry land War II. During their rule the Dutch developed the Dutch East Indies into one of the worlds richest colonial possessions. During the first decade of the 20th century an Indonesian independence work began, and it ex panded rapidly between the two World Wars. Its leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. Many, including Indonesias first president, Sukarno (1945-67), were immure for political activities. World War IIIn May 1940 the Netherlands surrendered to Germany (see World War II). The Dutch East Indies declared a state of siege and in July re-directed exports for Japan to the US and Britain. Negotiations with the Japanese aimed at securing supplies of aviation fuel collapsed in June 1941, and the Japanese started their conquest of Southeast Asia in December of that year.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Word-association in Oedipus The King :: Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex

Word-association in Oedipus The King Let us play a little game, shall we? We have all played this at one usher in our lives its the word-association game. Think red- you may think apple. Now think green- you may once again think apple. Wait a minute, how atomic number 50 that be? How atomic number 50 two words that are unrelated have the same picture in the mind of an individual? This is the basic idea of perception. Now let us apply this basic concept to the text of Oedipus Tyrannus. The main character, Oedipus, has lived his entire life with basic preconceived notion of his own existence. Sophocles manipulates the audiences perception of Oedipus through oral dramatic presentation. Lacan insists that dialogue is the place where a certain subject comes into being, or perhaps more properly, where the subject comes into being in a certain kind of representation (Lee 38) Jacques Lacan deals with the perception of individuals as well. However Lacans perceptions are those dealt wi th in the mind of his subjects. Let us introduce Oedipus, as the subject, to Lacan the psychoanalyst. Now that the two have met in our minds we can continue with the forum of one mans perception, Lacans, of another mans life, Oedipuss. Lacan has two complex theories. The first is the mirror theory. This theory deals with the internal world of the subject, and the phases of the conscious as well as the unconscious mind. The second is the inability to communicate ones desires adequately through the usage of oral communication- language. In both of these simplified concepts we will delve into the mind, and the actions of Oedipus the character. Let us first discuss the mirror stage, with application to Oedipus the man. Within the mirror stage there are five phases. The first of which is the fragmented body stage. While existing in this stage man is unaware of himself. In this dark, lost state man is unaware of his surroundings as well as himself as a being. Oedipus foregoing to the opening of the play lives his entire life in this fragmented state he is completely unaware of himself and his actions on his society. In this state Oedipus is caught up in the pomp of his title. The role of King carries an elevated perception of an idealized life (Lee 19). The next movement in the five phases is the spatial identity.

Word-association in Oedipus The King :: Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex

Word-association in Oedipus The King Let us play a little game, shall we? We have all played this at one site in our lives its the word-association game. Think red- you may think apple. Now think green- you may once again think apple. Wait a minute, how provoke that be? How whoremonger two words that are unrelated have the same picture in the mind of an individual? This is the basic idea of perception. Now let us apply this basic concept to the text of Oedipus Tyrannus. The main character, Oedipus, has lived his entire life with basic preconceived notion of his own existence. Sophocles manipulates the audiences perception of Oedipus through oral outstanding presentation. Lacan insists that dialogue is the place where a certain subject comes into being, or perhaps more properly, where the subject comes into being in a certain kind of look (Lee 38) Jacques Lacan deals with the perception of individuals as well. However Lacans perceptions are those dealt with in the mind of his subjects. Let us introduce Oedipus, as the subject, to Lacan the psychoanalyst. Now that the two have met in our minds we can continue with the forum of one mans perception, Lacans, of another mans life, Oedipuss. Lacan has two complex theories. The first is the mirror theory. This theory deals with the internal world of the subject, and the phases of the conscious as well as the unconscious mind. The second is the inability to communicate ones desires adequately through the usage of oral communication- language. In both of these simplified concepts we will delve into the mind, and the actions of Oedipus the character. Let us first discuss the mirror stage, with application to Oedipus the man. Within the mirror stage there are five phases. The first of which is the fragmented body stage. While living in this stage man is unaware of himself. In this dark, lost state man is unaware of his surroundings as well as himself as a being. Oedipus earlier to the opening of the play lives his entire life in this fragmented state he is completely unaware of himself and his actions on his society. In this state Oedipus is caught up in the pomp of his title. The role of King carries an elevated perception of an idealized life (Lee 19). The next movement in the five phases is the spatial identity.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Letter to cousin requesting funding for new business

Dear Ms. SmithI am sure you remember me although we feel not seen to each one other for a long time. I am poop Hanson, the son of your cousin Judith Hanson, born Smith. We last met at the Smith family reunion in Atlanta, tabun I was still an undergrad back then with big plans. Now I have arrived at a point in my life where I believe myself ready to set these big plans reality, and in the nearest future my friends and I plan to open a small local anaesthetic lay in that allow specialize in special occasion endow baskets for individual and corporate clients.With my friends expertise and background and my enthusiasm I am positive that we testament make our venture successful. A visit to the proposed location has convinced me that we have great opportunities ahead, and the uniqueness of our proposition forget make it stand out from the competition. All we hire to succeed is additional start-up capital to complement our resources. I have strong belief that if you agree to par ticipate in the venture, we will be able to format your money to good use and bring you a nice return on your investment.As I stated above, we plan to launch a store that will sell gift baskets for individual and corporate clients. To make our offerings even more attractive, we want to add ethnic, natural beauty products and spa quality botanicals. This will add an original touch and make our gift assortment the best in the locality. We already have a plan to make the interior formula of the store fascinating and comfortable to create for our customers an atmosphere of holiday which they step in buying gifts for their friends and colleagues.Our short-term goal is to build a reputation in the city of Bridgeport and neighboring towns as soon as our business has the resources to expand, we will be willing to move beyond Bridgeport and possibly Connecticut. However, repayment of your investment will in any case take precedence. If you decide to invest, we can discuss several options. One is that you invest for seven years, and begin to receive interest on your investment starting with the 2nd year of the stores operation and recoup the lump-sum after another five years. If you want to contribute for a interminable time period, you will have an opportunity to share in the salary from the store for a longer time period, for instance, getting a percentage of the profit for 10 or more years.If I were you, I would choose the latter option, because, in my opinion, the store is doomed to succeed. First, the area is really rich in companies of unlike kinds, and all of them need to purchase gift baskets for their employees. Besides, I have driven around the streets for a few hours and found only two stores that could remotely be described as gift stores.Entering them, I discovered a meagre assortment of goods that will make it really difficult for them to compete with us. Basically, local people unwilling to travel large distances have to shop for gifts in department s tores like Wal-Mart or Target, and these, as you know, are hardly the best backside for gifts. Besides, to differentiate ourselves from the already present gift stores, we will offer customers a modern design and additional services, such as vintage packaging for their goods, at a modest price. I rely on the experience of my friend who for five years worked as assistant manager in a gift store, and he says that the place is ideal for the venture.Now I want to thank you for the time you invested in reading this letter. I assure you that I would not be offering you to take part in the project, did I not have deep trust that it will be a successful venture. I invite you to meet with me and my friends who want to participate and visit the place that we plan to rent for our store. We can also forward you a proposed catalog of our products at any time.We have already prepared a business plan in which we back up our concepts with numbers that I will be glad to forward to you as well (75 StartUp Secrets, 2006). I hope that you will have a chance to evaluate all the pros and cons of this investment and decide to help us in this business. On my part, I can promise that the return will exceed any comparable return on other investment available. I will be glad to hear from you on this subject and meet in person, reviving old family ties and starting new business connections.Sincerely yours,Jack HansonReferences75 StartUp Secrets. (2006, March). Enterpreneur.com. Retrieved March 27, 2006, from http//www.entrepreneur.com/article/0,4621,326420,00.htmlInternal Revenue Service. Starting a Business. Retrieved March 27, 2006, from http//www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Case Study Freedomof Movement

Freedom of Movement Chaining Townsend palm Beach State College The way the hook should the decide this example to support the European Unions commitment to labor mobility amongst member states is that they need to sword a list of things they can do and ingest bothone in the court vote to see which suggestion is the best one. I dont think people out-side of the country should be getting a child raising allowance chip shot from Germany. Even if they use to live in the country. If they wanted the check they should have stayed in Germany.Plus the plaintiffs husband works in Germany and the plaintiff herself works for border control. That inwardness they can still live in Germany where it would be better for them to live and would still get a child raising allowance check every month. If the courts made a list of suggestions, and so they can have multiple things that can happen. Also, if the one thing that they voted on just so happens to fail then what they can do is go over the list to see what is the next best thing to do for the case. Lastly the court will need to make that the people of Germany and Europe would not have a pacific problem with what the courts choose.If the citizens do not c atomic number 18 for the courts opinion the bad things will happen, like riots and protests. The similarities between Germany and Austria to Illinois and inch is they are both between two different places. What mean about this is that Germany is its own country and Austria is also its own country while Illinois and indium are both their own states. Now the similarities between the child raising allowance virtue and the unemployment law are that they are both place to suffice out the community. Also they are both used to help people outside of the country or the state.They are both very helpful laws and are I am sure they are greatly appreciated by the people affected by them. The differences between the child raising allowance law and the unemployment law is that the child raising allowance law is for people in Germany that have children and only part time jobs, while the unemployment law is for people have either lost their job or never had one. But the unemployment law has nothing to do with whether the person has a child or not. Also Illinois and Indiana are a part of one country when Germany and Austria are two different countries and have different governmental spoke persons.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Daniel Suelo the Archetypal hero Essay

The book The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell proposes that all myths are essentially wiz-quest stories, separately of which rings a unique transform on a universal pattern a pattern he calls the monomyth. According to Campbell, the heros journey consists of three main moves departure, initiation, and return. Within each of these categories is a number of stages common to the plots of all hero-quest stories, and can be compared to Daniel Suelos adventure throughout his life. According to the book The Hero with a Thousand Faces, the first off move of the journey is departure which starts with the call to adventure. The call of adventure is how the journey starts and with Daniel Suelo it starts with him sledding the last of his money in a telephone booth and departure for the adventure (accepting the call to adventure), so there is no direct indication of a call of adventure but divergence behind the money is plausibly the closest.Sometimes the hero does not acce pt the call to adventure and refuses it which turns the story to the negative, they lose their power and instead of the saving people, they are the one to be salvage for refusing. After refusing their life changes from beautiful and colorful to boring dry and empty, and this is not the same as what happens to Daniel Suelo, but his life before was meaningless and he unceasingly wanted to take on the adventure (life with no money), so he probably refused the call before and true it later on.And for those who did not refuse the call, accepted it and took it on, the first thing the hero meets is a figure that is protective of them, and provides the hero help against whatever comes up on his or her journey. According to Daniel Suelos story, he has no supernatural aid, and no one on his side to help him with his journey,but later on in his life he does find a man, and has a relationship, and that relationship is possibly what kept him going, because he was very lonely, and his friend p rotected him from the feeling of being lonely.According to Joseph Campbell, the hero continues his journey until he comes to a doorstep guardian, where he must cross the first threshold. This is where the hero must be brave to step in through the threshold to experience the unknown and compared to Daniel Suelos story, he accepted the call toadventure and gets a supernatural aid, then must go through the threshold which is possibly him leaving his house and leaving his money in the phone booth and taking the world on without any money.The passage of the magical threshold is symbolized in the womb image of the belly of the wale. After the hero taking on the threshold, the hero will easily be sucked into the belly of the wale, and will appear as dead. Daniel Suelos adventure starts with him leaving his money, and ending up living in a cave in Utah, and that is where all his adventures start, and the cave is where he sleeps, which makes him appear as dead, then second twenty-four hour s he wakes up hes stronger and hes ready to take on everything.The second big move of the hero is initiation that starts with the road of trials that the hero must go through and experience, to get to the end of his journey. The hero must survive the trials, and this stage in a story in known to be the favorite phase of adventure,where the hero will meet the unknown and be ready for the unexperienced. The trials in Daniel Suelos life is probably everything he has to face everyday to live human beings, to animals.Sometimes Daniel Suelo had to take heed his best to keep his cave up in Utah from police officers that wouldnt allow him to live on unused government property. He withal how to go through trials asking for food, because Daniel used to only take food from those who offered, or from dumpsters, which is something that some businesses didnt like. For Daniel Suelo, everyday is a road of trials. After equivalence Daniel Suelo to the archetypal hero Campbell refers to, its possi ble to see similarities him and the hero, but it is also hard to find much concrete similarities between the two. In the end, according to Campbell, I opine that Daniel is actually an archetypal hero that had to go through trails that each other hero went through in movies, old stories, and modern day story telling.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Racism as defined by mass media Essay

Oscar H. Gandy Jr. defines racism as, the process of exercising power or pursuance to exercise power with regard to people defined by identifying them as a member of a particular race.1 Racism and race bowing from the identity one puts onto certain groups of individuals based on their glossary. The identity that one forms is acquired from a number of places including pargonnts, religion, school, government and, on todays youth, mainly intensity media such as picture and music. In this es say one will focus on the fascinate that mass media has on our identity billet of race. It is overt that either forms of print and electronic media, from give-and-take media to books, films, television, radio, and all other forms of media collectively represent our image of ourselves.2 The focus for the purpose of this essay will be on intelligence operation media, television and music, be the most influential forms of media, while focusing on the youth of today, universe the easiest to influence. raws media has great power in influencing how people identify themselves by how they are delineate on the. The stereotypes that television has shown, are viewed by some young individuals of colour, and are portraying how their race is viewed upon among society. medication has the greatest influence on young blacks, which view their idols as those shown in music videos. Mass media in a collective form, although may represent individuals of colour, influence the viewers of colour, how they should distinguish themselves.3 Mass media reflects what we think we are and influences what we think we should be.Beginning with the news from a nation wide news station to a topical anaesthetic newspaper or news program. News media has the ability to stereotype and categorize people of colour, by using words such as minority. Never are minorities not called minorities even when they take up one third of Canadas population. Along with categorizing people of colour with the use of minority, they include words like crime, mendicancy and others that stereotype people of colour.4 This is viewed by young non-whites, which make them believe that this how things are and how they should be. The media now form the capability to alter our perceptions of ourselves, and change the way we live our lives. recent African-Americans, who view the news and down how their race is being represented, may possibly alter their perceptions of their lives and view themselves as criminals, when the news relates their race to criminal acts.The rarity of scholarship a person of colour receives in the scholastic proceedings, is viewed among the youth of today. Of course there must be someone, somewhere of colour, writing or saying something that should be listened to, or producing art that should be date stampn, heard, approached with intellectual seriousness.5 This failure to recognize individuals of colour will influence youth not to pursue intellectual readings and to see educ ational subjects, which are not represented by their race.In Postmodern Blackness by Bell Hooks, its states, This discourse created the idea of the primitive and promoted the notion of an authorized experience, seeing as natural those expressions of smutty life, which conformed to a pre-existing pattern or stereotype.6 In the news when we see a person of colour committing a crime of some sort, we look at it as being a normal act and this how things are in our society. Whites and non-whites alike(predicate) look upon the news and make assumptions somewhat how they should act, what their values should be, and how they live their daily lives.The youth of today will be the first generation to come of age in a North America where racial minorities are the numeric majority. The future of diversity will depend upon a childs perception on the position of racial identities. The youth of all races will have to expand their conception of race and race relations in ways their parents never knew. Is it important for children to see people of their own race on television? Children of colour are most likely to think so. Caucasian and African-American children can say they see characters of their race on television while Latino and Asian children are much less likely to see their race represented.7 It is the way they are represented which will affect the influence television will have on children.While some television stations do show diversification in their programming such as OMNI, they are not providing a realistic viewpoint. When a Caucasian character on television is poor, lazy and unintelligent, the show is considered to be comical, such as The Simpsons or Married with Children, and not taken as realistic.Whereas, when they are successful, rich and intellectual, the show is considered to be dramatic and viewed as being realistic. African-American characters are rarely presented as being poor, lazy and unintelligent, except unceasingly rich and successful, such a s The Cosby Show and Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, and are always meant to be comical, but never taken seriously or realistically. Shows like these influence African-American children that their race is not taken seriously and are viewed as being humorous. This would affect a young African-Americans thinking is a sense that he is suppose to be a comedian.Many television shows give minority actors, minority roles. Taxi drives in most sitcoms are always non-white, grocery store workers and gas station attendants are always non-white, in shows such as Seinfeld. Although these sitcoms are not suppose to be taken realistic, young individuals of all races are more likely to associate positive characteristics with Caucasian characters and negative characteristics with minority characters. Sitcoms and other television shows have the ability to alter these perceptions, but continue to stereotype minorities.Still focusing upon the children of today, because they have great belief in the medias po wer and its potential to influence them. Media can teach children that people of their race are important.8 If television had shows, which evenly distributed the role of characters to all races featuring equality and diversification, they can accomplish sending a message of the importance of all races.Children look to the media for role models and imitate their favourite character. From the way they dress, talk, style their vibrissa to following the messages sent by their characters. From the haircuts of the women on Friends to the baggy fashions of the hip-hop scene, the influence of media on todays children can be seen everywhere. Beyond superficial messages about style and appearance, children are getting more formative messages from the media. The characters they admire and the news stories they watch send both subtle and explicit signals about their values, their families and their race.9 This shows the importance of the messages being sent out by mass media and the importance of different characters and the characteristics they portray. Many African-American children will look to African-American characters for idols and will portray them.In The New Cultural Politics of Difference, Cornel West states,The widespread modern European denial of the intelligence, ability, beauty, and character of people of colour puts a tremendous burden on critics and artists of colour to prove themselves in light of norms and models set by White elites whose own heritage devalued and dehumanized them. In short, in the court of check and art or any matters regarding the life of the mind people of colour are guilty (i.e., not expected to meet standards of intellectual achievement) until proven frank (i.e., acceptable to us).10The image that people of colour are guilty until proven innocent illustrates to young individuals of all colours that because of this, people of colour are not as intellectual as Caucasians.In Postmodern Blackness, Bell Hooks states,It is no acciden t that rap has usurped the primary position of rhythm and megrims music among young black folks as the most desired sound or that it began as a form of testimony for the underclass. It has enabled underclass black youth to develop a critical voice as a group of young black men told me, a common literacy. Rap projects a critical voice, explaining, demanding, urging.11To all young African-Americans, this message is saying that their only voice, their only outlet, is through entertainment in the way of music. They are not enough African-American writers to allow them to consider an outlet that is scholarly. They feel they have to portray the image that is being sent to them through rappers and musicians alike to dress, talk, walk and act the way these rappers say they do, in drinking, smoking and heading for drugs.Young African-American men that watch rap videos, sports, movies and may see many men of their race in this forms of media, but the image they represent is that if you cannot make it as a rapper, actor or athlete, youll never become wealthy and successful. Rarely are there images on news media about wealthy African-American businessmen unless its criminal rarely are business shows on television shown where black businessmen are the line drawing of the show. They may be a rarity, but should not be and ought to be discussed in business matters.Looking at music for influences, from Stanford, Kathleen OToole puts in best, medication alters and intensifies their moods, furnishes much of their slang, dominates their conversations and provides the ambiance at their social gatherings. Music styles define the crowds and cliques they run in. Music personalities provide models for how they act and dress.12This states that music alters our perception of ourselves and what we should be and how we should act. Our identity is touched and changed according to music videos. Rap videos show African-American singers as doing drinking, smoking, having naked women around t hem and treating them inappropriately and this is how African-American youth thinks they should act, instead musicians need to send an capable message out to the youth of today. Also, other races will feel that this is how African-Americans act and will treat them accordingly. Many African-American rappers have lyrics, which are against authority and this influences others alike to perceive the same thoughts.Everyone of every race has an identity theyd like to call their own. But this identity is usually not their own and influenced by many sources, especially mass media. From music to television to news media, the influence these have on the children of today is immense. Music, television and news media, collectively with other mass medium, have the ability to alter ones perceptions of oneself and the characteristics of others. ply has always been a touchy subject because of its sensitivity and although I am a person of colour, I may have made some stereotypical comments of both whites and non-whites, but I did so only with the intent of making my point. Mass media reflects what we think we are and influences what we think we should be.BibliographyColorado State University conjunct Extension. Im Looking for Me Childrens Perception of Race and Class in the Media. Family Matters Newsletter. October 2002. (20 Nov. 2003).Gandy, Jr., Oscar H. On Race and the semipolitical Economy of Communication. Art & extract An Internet Review. Issue 2, Volume 1. (23 Nov. 2003).Hall, Stuart. Cultural Identity and Diaspora. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory. Patrick William & Laura Chrisman, eds., Pp. 392-403, (c) Columbia University, 1994.Hooks, Bell. Postmodern Blackness. Yearning Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, Pp. 23-31, (c) among the Lines, 1990.Lauder, Matthew. News Media Perpetuation of Racism in a participatory Society. Cancon Articles. (21 Nov. 2003).OToole, Kathleen. Rock & Roll Does it Influence Teens Behavior? Stanford Report Online. 1997. (2 0 Nov. 2003).Third Way Caf. Children and Race in the Media. Racism The Public Face. Beyond the News. (21 Nov. 2003).West, Cornel. The New Cultural Politics of Difference. The Cultural Reader. 2nded. Simon during, ed., Pp. 256-267, (c) Routledge, 1999.1 Gandy, Jr., Oscar H. On Race and the Political Economy of Communication. Art & Survival An Internet Review. Issue 2, Volume 1. (23 Nov. 2003).2 Third Way Caf. Children and Race in the Media. Racism The Public Face. Beyond the News. (21 Nov. 2003).3 Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Im Looking for Me Childrens Perception of Race and Class in the Media. Family Matters Newsletter. October 2002. (20 Nov. 2003).4 Lauder, Matthew. News Media Perpetuation of Racism in a Democratic Society. Cancon Articles. (21 Nov. 2003).5 Hooks, Bell. Postmodern Blackness. Yearning Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, Pp. 24, (c) Between the Lines, 1990.6 Ibid. 26.7 Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Im Looking for Me Childr ens Perception of Race and Class in the Media. Family Matters Newsletter. October 2002. (20 Nov. 2003).8 Third Way Caf.9 Ibid10 West, Cornel. The New Cultural Politics of Difference. The Cultural Reader. 2nded. Simon during, ed., Pp. 256-267, (c) Routledge, 1999.11 Hooks, Bell. 27.12 OToole, Kathleen. Rock & Roll Does it Influence Teens Behavior? Stanford Report Online. 1997. (20 Nov. 2003).

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Communication and Information Technology Essay

Technological advancement need improved and eased the communication process. With the world revolving around technology, almost all tasks have been simplified consequently reducing the number of hours that one stop perform a certain(prenominal) task. It has helped in the organizing learning, therefore enabling access and retrieval of reading easy. The use of technology has helped many geological formations cut on costs at the same time increase readiness and promptness in service auction pitch. In the health check arena, most of the up to the standard hospitals or health charge governances have adopted the use of technology in delivering of their run.This has brought about comfortably and the feeling of appreciation to the patient or the someone who is being served as it gives an aura of value for money and the sense of embrace of technology in this technological era. Electronic medical exam Records is one of these technologies (Kluge, 2001). With the capacity to hold limitless information and being able to be changed to fit the current need, this technology has helped in the healthcare practitioners to deliver services in a more organized manner and without having delays as compared to if everything was done manually.Consequentially, this reduces costs and improves the picture of the organization at the same time fostering observe ability of the organization of the number of clients escorting the healthcare facility. Electronic Medical Record is computerized kind of information keeping in which information is compressed as it is converted in a digital format. This allows for consumption of minimal distance while keeping the office of operation clean, tidy and attractive (Fins, 2008). This creation of space enables the expansion of services offered in the healthcare facility as there is more space of operation.Access of information becomes easy and convenient thus increasing the morale of the staff in service delivery. It offsets the possibili ty of committing unnecessary mistakes while delivering services because of handwritten records which are not legible. This program makes it workable transfer information from one healthcare system to another thus making it possible to treat patients in the shortest time possible as their medical records are delivered in the shortest time possible electronically.By use of this technology, it is possible for parents to monitor their kids wellbeing without having extra cost of travelling to where they are to check on their progress. It also makes it possible for patients to assess their medical record and also get their results without much problem of waiting till they are given to them manually. other electronic communication delivery services like the use of voice over have helped in the reduction of the amount of work that one does in calling patients manually so that they tramp be attended to.It is vertical a simple task of just announcing a patients name and they go to the cor responding room in which they get out be served. This has increased efficiency and effectiveness in serving clients (Fins, 2008). This sets a kind of an order which they patients follow and allowing for easy dissemination of information, loud abounding for everyone to hear, thus, patients do not have to suffer the discomfiture of not having heard their names being mentioned by a caller physically since this system is fitted with speakers loud enough to be heard clearly.Other technologies like the Practice management software system ensure the smooth running of the healthcare system giving medical practitioners a humble time in their operations on a mundane basis. This wads off possibilities of confusion and lets them (medical practitioners) operate in an orderly manner. The information which this software can handle is all inclusive and does not only include the clients bio data but also other aspects of the healthcare organization like bills and transactions going on.(Klug, 200 1) It works just the same way as the EMR only that it comprises of the management aspect of healthcare system in its daily operations. Apart from keeping a track on patients conditions and appointments, the system is used to develop bills and keep a record on the same so that thee reports can be used whenever need arises. It keeps every transaction and activity on record so that it becomes possible for any practitioner to know what was done the front day and by who, which patient was attended to and by who so that he/she is able to know exactly where to start as concerns a specific task.This just as the EMRs has a way of cutting costs and increasing effectiveness. This is because all information as concerns any patient is stored electronically and retrieved with ease when need arises, thus avoiding the possibility of confusing ones medical data with another persons (Fins, 2008). This enables a medical practitioner to prescribe the right medicine to the right person while at the sam e time allowing for generation of information about the right bills for the client in accordance to the medical procedures and medication accorded to him or her.Other systems like the electronic health systems keep a full medical history of a patient. It keeps essential information that can be used by the doctor or any medical practitioner to offer quick and effective diagnosis of a patient. All healthcare reports about a certain patient are stored in this system including drugs prescribed to the patient every time he/she attends that healthcare facility. It is also inclusive of all test results of that picky patient as well as x-rays and the response of the patient towards a certain medication.All this information is essential for up to level health care treatment of any patient. It keeps off the agony of a patient for having to answer tedious questions about their past medical history every time they visit a healthcare facility, as information about them is stored electronically and retrieved on every visit. This medical history is updated time to time on the occasions that a client visits for the purpose of seeking for treatment. The use of electronic technology in healthcare systems has more pros than cons.This is because as enumerated above, it has advantages to both the client and the healthcare facility. The fact that it increases efficiency and effectiveness can not be underscored while at the same time reducing operating costs of the facility. Clients are served to their liking and while their medical record is kept safely and is retrieved during the time of need with a lot of ease (Kluge, 2001). One of the major disadvantages is that information about a patient can be copied maliciously and tampered with.If the entire system should break down, then volumes and volumes of information are lost. It would be a good thing if all the above system could be integrated into one piece. This will ease operation even more as all the operations are under one ti cktack of a mouse. It could also be improved in such a way that clients can access their information wherever and whenever they are. Reference Fins, J. (2008). electronic network of Care How Will the Electronic Medical Record Change Medicine? The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 38, pp. 67-88 Kluge, E. (2001). The Ethics of Electronic Patient Record

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Marketing Mix Report Essay

Braaap is an Australian company which operates as well in regular army producing dirty bikes for all ages and gender. It is a company that provides goodness conditions for the consumer buying their bikes with stores located around the country and online options to choose the best way to obtain a bike. The principal(prenominal) characteristic of Braaaps is to transmit products for dirty bikes with the highest quality in the sphere. The brand is known across Australia as the biggest store online in the market. Connected with partners around the world that provide to them the necessary support to develop their new products.In the Braaaps store, the costumer can buy equipments from the best brands around the world which multiply the chassis of choices for everyone. By the way, the prices are not low another(prenominal)wise they could not offer a highest quality in their products. However, Braaap has a unique promotion that reconciles the difference in this market, Braaaps is the o nly store which provides a lifetime warranty for their customers. If we think that this sport has a very high risk, this kind of promotion is very good for their image in the market. Braaap has created their image through many kind of events which involve motorcycle, sometimes sponsoring athletics or tournaments around the world. Also they produce a record monthly to keep their clients aware about what is changing or the market news.Most of the Braaaps clients are young people between 20 to 35, oddly mans, due to the practice of that sport. Anyway, they are laborious to get more attention from woman and child. Braaaps offer a program to learn how to ride and other events to entrencher the customer that might not like this sport or lifestyle. Braaaps stores have segmented their business since they were just an online store with few equipments and brands. Beyond sell part of motorcycles, Braaad starts to sell cloths and all equipments from many different brands. This action expand ed the business and increased the profitability. A huge variety of equipments, not just parts of motorcycles except cloths and accessories from many different brands are an important turnaround of Braaaps business. Even if the prices are high, does not matter because the quality, design, options and a reliable brand make the difference in the market.Braaaps cover whole Australia and export for other countries around the world, their onlinestore is well viewed for everybody and their promotions are always very effective. The marketing assortment is open their eyes for business and they are trying to leave the equipments more accessible for all public otherwise the competitors are growing up rapidly and getting a good slide of the motorcycles customers. The clients like when the company has a nice reputation in the market and when that brand is strive in the events between sport, media and entertainment. It makes the public remember their brand as a good position which care about their lifestyle. Also the clients would like to get liberal access to store to solve their enquires, and keep clear the information and services between company and customer.One of the innovations at braaap is the Launch of the braaap silent. Braaap is one of the first flatulence based motorcycle manufacture to launch an electric powered bike off the production line. It means that Braaaps stores are trying to find a way out of the saturated market and at the same time renew the concept of motorcycles around the world. For while, it is just available in Australia and USA but it will be everywhere soon. In conclusion, Braaaps business is given more attention for the price due to the knowledge that price could influence instanter in the other points of the marketing mix. The lower price is always a good option but in this case would not be a good position if we consider that Braaap works with best brand around the world and offer only highest quality products. It is recommended that Braaads store keeps working well, trying to get the best for their clients and always investing in new products and partners which will make them stronger than ever.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Most Study Abroad Program Should Be Rename Party Abroad They Are Waste of Time Essay

Every year, a large number of students go overseas to study. The most universal destination for these students are Australia, Japan, United State, Egypt, and Iraq, but wherever they go, they have to learn to adapt with the culture and the lifestyle of the country they choose which are very variant from their own. Many people believe there is no better way to learn about other countries and cultures than by backing on those countries.To live in the overseas, the students must pay often(prenominal) kinds of fee as cost of living, cost of boarding, and also cost of schooling itself. Firstly, the cost of living, of course the charge in a strange country much more expensive than in their own country. Likely four times as many as the charge of living in the big city in Indonesia. Secondly, the coast of boarding, included the flat, the electricity, water, cleaning and security services, etc. those extremely expensive too. The last, the outlay of schooling, the price isnt indifferent expensive with the two things above. However, those kinds of expense are not worsen if the student win a scholarship.Scholarship students do not need to pay such kinds of financial, they get so many free costs, for instances get accommodation and get travel expense, given adoptive parents. Thus, they havent to rent a room, con living allowance, obtain health insurance and the most important is they get free tuition, etc.In conclusion, study abroad expend so much money and misuse the time, nevertheless the scholarship students, they study overseas without charge or at no cost at all.

Monday, May 20, 2019

McCarty v. Pheasant Run , Inc.

Summary of CaseMrs. Dula McCarty brought suit a make believest Pheasant Run Inc. for negligence. In 1981, Mrs. McCarty was attacked by a man in her hotel room, beaten and threatened of rape. Mrs. McCarty ultimately fought off her assailant and he fled. The attacker was never identified nor brought to justice. Although Mrs. McCarty did not sustain serious somatogenic injuries, she claimed the incident caused prolonged emotional hurt which led to an early retirement. An investigation revealed that a slide glass door, which was concealed behind curtains, was manipulated and enabled the attacker to gain entry into her hotel room. Mrs. McCarty made multiple claims of negligence against Pheasant Run Inc., including that they should agree had better betrothing devices on the sliding door more security personnel the walkway to her sliding door inaccessible from the ground aim better over all procedures for dealing with non guests posting signs telling guests to keep their doors locked at all times. Ultimately, the flirt did not see it Mrs. McCartys way. McCarty argued the strain should have granted her motion for judgment notwithstanding the venires verdict for the defendant.McCarty did not request the directed verdict on the issue of Pheasant Runs negligence which is a prerequisite to judgment n.o.v. M any accidents are neither the injurer nor the victims fault and therefore there is no liability. The judge advised Mrs. McCarty that the case was not as one sided as she believed it to be. Additionally, following a jurys verdict, a judge cannot substitute its judgment when the judgment was reasonable (2). Mrs. McCarty did a poor job in proving that Pheasant Run could have prevented her attack with her advised precautions.Mrs. McCarty did not provide information of what it would cost Pheasant Run to outfit the hotel rooms with improved locking systems and whether the system would have been impenetrable. She also failed to advise the jury on the spare security forces she claimed would have made a difference. In regards to the Mrs. McCartys sliding door, it was equipped with a lock and an additional safety chain. The safety chain was fastened but the lock was not used. This casehad enunciate of negligence but none of exigent liability. There were reasonable precautions in place. Elements of Intentional TortTort justness enables citizens to try on reimbursement for loss and or suffering from conduct that would be deemed dangerous or unreasonable of others (3). Tort practice of law is non criminal and is dealt with in our civil judicial system. The categories of Tort Law imply intentional tort, negligence and strict liability.An intentional tort case is proved by the plaintiff showing that the defendant intentionally wound him/her (1). In a negligence case, the plaintiff shows that the defendant did not act carefully as the law requires and therefore should be liable for any damages to the plaintiff (1). The strict liability cases oc cur when a plaintiff suffers damages even though the defendant acted carefully and with no intent of harm universe done to them (1).During a trial the plaintiff will attempt to prove their case by the initiation of evidence to the trier of fact. The evidence usually includes testimony of persons involved witnesses as well as physical things such as pictures, documentation/records, recordings etc How a Defense is TriggeredA common defense is that there was a superseding step in cause which was the cause of the injury to the plaintiff. The plaintiff moldiness then prove that the injury was a conclusion of the tort committed by the defendant and not due to the progression of the prior cause. Another defense, regarding trespass of duty, is that a plaintiff must show they have damage that is legally recognized. The plaintiff cannot claim they have suffered but cannot show damages.Proximate cause refers to the plaintiff being able to show that the damage and or injuries they bear on were a result of the tort they are suing for. An example would be the plaintiffs nose was stone-broke as a result of the defendant flailing his elbows amongst the crowd. Features in a Negligence ComplaintScenarios where batch are injured as a result of an accident occur more frequently than those where tidy sum are injured due to malicious behavior. As a result, the law recognizes a duty to aline to a sealed standard of conduct for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm. If there is a ill to conform which results in an injury, damage or loss, the injured party has a cause of action for negligence. Additionally, a court will utilize several ways to formulate the negligence standard.One of the more famous is the debate Formula which determines whether the burden of precaution is less than the magnitude of the accident, if it occurs, multiplied by the probability of occurrence. In a negligence case, there are four elements that must be researched for a plain tiff to recover damages.These elements include 1) did a defendant owe the plaintiff a duty to act in a certain way 2) did the defendant breach the duty by failing to act as well as the duty required 3) did the defendants conduct cause several(prenominal) harm 4) did the defendants conduct harm the plaintiff (1). If any of these elements are found to not be true then no cause of action in negligence is recognized. It is important to note that it is the responsibility of the plaintiff to prove that the defendant was negligent. There are some differences between negligence and other torts. When establishing negligence, the defendant has a reasonable person standard he/she must abide by.Compared to strict liability, a person has the absolute duty to make safe that which is the subject of the grounds (3). Negligence per se is another tort which differs from negligence. Regarding negligence per se, an act performed is shown to be in violation of state law or city ordinance. Malpractice is a form of negligence which takes form in a contrastive field. It is coined professional negligence (3). A person is required to act as would a reasonably skilled, prudent, competent, and see member of their profession.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Britannia Biscuit Research Paper Essay

Britannia -the cooky leader with a hi taradiddle-has withstood the tests of time. Part of the reason for its succeeder has been its ability to resonate with the changes in consumer needs-needs that puddle varied significantly crossways its 100+ course epoch. With consumer major(ip)(ip)ity rule reaching reinvigorated levels, the integrity common thread to emerge in recent times has been the swop in lifestyles and a corresponding aw areness of health. People are increasingly neat conscious of dietary care and its correlation to wellness and matching the in the buff pace to their lives with improved nutritional and dietary habits. This new awareness has seen consumers seeking foods that complement their lifestyles while whirling convenience, variety and economy, over and above health and nutrition.Britannia maxim the writing on the wall. Its Swasth Khao Tan Man Jagao (Eat Healthy, Think Better) re-position directly addressed this new trend by promising the new generation a healthy and nutritious alternative that was as well as delightful and tasty.Thus, the new logo was born, encapsulating the core essence of Britannia healthy, nutritious, and optimistic and combining it with a delightful product range to offer variety and choice to consumers.INTRODUCTION TO THE INDUSTRYBISCUIT INDUSTRY IN INDIA AN OVERVIEW cooky industry in India in the organized sector produces around 60% of the total production, the balance 40% being contributed by the unorganized bakeries. The industry populates of two large scale manufacturers, around 50 medium scale brands and blue scale units ranging up to 2500 units in the country, as at 2000-01. The unorganized sector is estimated to have approximately 30,000 gnomish & tiny bakeries across the country. The annual turnover of the organized sector of the cooky manufacturers (as at 2001-02) is Rs. 4,350 crores. In footing of volume biscuit production by the organized segment in 2001-02 is estimated at 1.30 million to nnes. The major Brands of biscuits are Britannia, Parle Bakeman, Priya Gold,Elite,Cremica, Dukes, Anupam, Horlicks, Craze, Nez ace, besides various regional/State brands. cookie industry which was till then uncommunicative in the SSI Sector, was unreserved in 1997-98, in accordance with the Govt. constitution, based on the recommendations of the Abid Hussain Committee. The annual production of biscuit in the organized sector, continues to be predominantly in the elflike and medium sale sector to begin with and after de-reservation. The annual production was around 7.4 Lakh tonnes in 1997-98 in the next five socio-economic classs, biscuit production witnessed an annual harvest-home of 10% to 12%, up to 1999-00. The annual Growth showed a gloam of 3.5% in 2000-01, mainly due to 100% hike in Central fall Duty (from 9% to 16%). Production in the year 2001-02 increased really marginally by 2.75% where in 2002-03 the growth is around 3%. The Union Budget for 2003-04 granted 5 0% reduction in the rate of Excise Duty on Biscuit i.e. from 16% to 8%. The federations estimate for the current year indicates a growth of approximately 8% to 9%. However the average utilization of installed capacity by biscuit manufacturers in the country has been a dismal 60% over the last decade up to 2001-02. Though dereservation resulted in a few MNCs, i.e. Sara Lee, Kellogs SmithKline Beecham, Heinz etceteraentering the biscuit industry in India, most of them, with the riddance of SmithKline Beecham (Horlicks Biscuits), have ceased production in the country. On the other hand, import of biscuits, especially in the high value segment has started from 1998-99, but however, the quantum of imports has not so far increased alarmingly and has remained at around 3.75% of the usance of biscuits in the country in the year 2001-02.However, recent imports from china industries cheaper verities of biscuit, needs to be examined with cautions, especially in the context of the price as the low margin based domestic industry, which is operating at 60 % of the total installed capital. Exports of biscuits from India have been to the extent of 5.5% of the total production. Exports are expected to grow only in the year 2003-04 and beyond. Biscuit is a hygienically packaged nutritious snack food available at very competitive prices, volumes and different tastes. According to the NCAER Study, biscuit is predominantly consumed by people from the lower strata of society, particularly children in both rural and urban areas with an average monthly income of Rs. 750.00. Biscuit can he broadly categorized into the following segments (Based on productions of 2000-01)Glucose 44%Marie 13%Cream 10%Crackers 13%Milk 12%Others 8%. . FBMI ( Federation of Biscuit Manufacturers of India ) is an association of all the biscuit manufacturers of India. Major players entangle Britannia, Parle, ITC, Priyagold, Windsor etc. In recognition of industrys obligations towards the community, being a part of it, biscuit manufacturers add biscuits to the social welfare agencies in all States for the benefit of school children, senior citizens and other needy partitions of the society. FBMI ( Federation of Biscuit Manufacturers of India ) Members have always responded positively to our appeal as also by the Government, to rush truck loads of biscuits to the people affected by earthquakes, floods, famine etc. These members have also participated in supplying biscuits to the people of war ravaged Afghanistan and presently to the Iraqi people, under the aegis of the UN. As regards the consumption pattern is concerned. surveys and estimates by industry from time to time indicate the average consumption scenario in the four Zones have been much or less close to each other, as below1. Yankee States 28%2. Southern States 24%3. Western States 25%4. Eastern States 23% pic Though India is considered as the ternion largest producer of Biscuits after USA and China, the per capit a consumption of biscuits in our country is only 2.1 Kg., compared to more than 10 kg in the USA, UK and West European countries and above 4.25 kg in south cast Asian countries, Le. Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Indonesia etc. China has a per capita consumption of 1.90 kg, while in the case of Japan it is estimated at 7.5 kg. In interpret of the meager per capita consumption even as penetration of biscuits manufactured by the organised sector, into rural areas in India, has been very good during the last 10 years, as also in the metro and other cities, small towns etc. However, in spite of this, the industry has not been able to utilize about half of their installed capacities. Biscuit is a comparatively low margin food product in the PMCG (Packaged Mass Consumption ripe(p)s) sector. The commodity is also price sensitive, as a consequence of which, even when the Excise Duty was doubled on biscuits in 2000-01 biscuit manufacturers, including the major brands, were not able hike MRPs to the extend of the steep increase in the Duty. Taxation, both Central Excise Duty as also State Sales Tax, other unlike levies i.e. turnover tax, local area tax, mandi taxes, purchase tax, Octroi etc., has been a major deterrent in the growth of the biscuit industry. The CII Study Report has set Biscuit as one of the products that should treated as Merit Good for the purpose of liberal tax policy both by the Centre and States. Besides lack of applied science upgradation in manufacturing, packaging etc has also been a factor affecting our industry, along with inadequate financial attribute and support particularly for the medium and small scale biscuit units. On the other hand, the Government of India has identified food processing industries as a priority area to be encouraged for growth and breeding and created the Ministry of Food bear on Industries (which was till then a Dept in the Ministry of Agriculture), headed by an Ministry of State with Independent charge. Biscuit manufacturing as well as other bakery products like Bread etc are agro based industries, with the major inputs wheat flour/atta sugar, milk vanaspati/vegetable oil etc all being agriculture produces. Industries much(prenominal) as Biscuit are also languishing as they are not able to achieve their potentials for higher production, in the absence of the concrete food Processing Industry Policy. FBMI in close coordination with other organizations and apex Chambers, initiated to preach the Govt of India to formulate a comprehensive Policy Document, for smooth growth and harmonious development of the industry. The Food Processing Industry Policy, which has been evolved as a result of various workshops, deliberations and representations by a large cross section of food processing industries, is yet to be finalized. It is hoped that the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, GOI would initiate action for implementation of the Policy expeditiously. According to the production f igures of members available upto the calendar year 2003, the total production was 625000 tonnes as against 475000 tonnes in the anterior year. The production of biscuit for the last 11 years is as under 1993 167750 1994 1805261995 202567 1996 2223711997 362000 1998 4000001999 425000 2000 4500002001 465000 2002 4750002003 625000Note the production of members of FBMI consist of 50% (approx.) of the total production of biscuit in the organized sector.INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANYHISTORYThe story of one of Indias favourite brands reads almost like a fairy tale. Once upon a time, in 1892 to be precise, a biscuit company was started in a nondescript house in Calcutta (now Kolkata) with an initial investment of Rs. 295. The company we all know as Britannia today.The beginnings might have been humble-the stargazes were anything but. By 1910, with the advent of electricity, Britannia fit out its operations, and in 1921, it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use im ported gas ovens. Britannias tune was flourishing. But, more importantly, Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value. As a result, during the tragic origination war II, the Government reposed its trust in Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of service biscuits to the armed forces.As time moved on, the biscuit market continued to grow and Britannia grew along with it. In 1975, the Britannia Biscuit guild took over the distribution of biscuits from Parrys who till now distributed Britannia biscuits in India. In the subsequent unexclusive issue of 1978, Indian shareholding crossed 60%, firmly establishing the Indianness of the firm. The following year, Britannia Biscuit Company was re-christened Britannia Industries Limited (BIL). intravenous feeding years later in 1983, it crossed the Rs. 100 crores revenue mark.On the operations front, the company was making equally dynamic strides. In 1992, it celebrated its Platinum Jubilee. In 1997, the com pany unveiled its new corporal identity Eat Healthy, Think Better and do its first foray into the dairy products market. In 1999, the Britannia Khao, World Cup Jao promotion further fortified the affinity consumers had with Brand Britannia.Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of Indias biggest brands and the pre-eminent food brand of the country. It was equally recognised for its innovative approach to products and marketing the Lagaan Match was voted Indias most prospering promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became Indias most successful product launch. In 2002, Britannias New Business Division formed a joint gage with Fonterra, the worlds second largest Dairy Company, and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd. was born. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph, Forbes Global rated Britannia adept amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World, and The Economic Times pegged Britannia Indias 2nd Most swe ar Brand.Today, more than a century after those tentative first steps, Britannias fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards, and that miniscule initialInvestment has freehanded by leaps and bounds to crores of rupees in wealth for Britannias shareholders. The companys offerings are spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of Indias one billion populations and a strong management at the helm means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. And millions of consumers will savour the results, happily ever after.HISTORY OF BISCUITSsugariness or salty. Soft or crunchy. Simple or exotic. Everybody loves munching on biscuits, but do they know how biscuits began?The story of biscuits can be traced back to a recipe created by the Roman chef Apicius, in which a heavy paste of fin e wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate. When it had dry and warmened it was cut up and then fried until crisp, then served with honey and pepper.The word Biscuit is derived from the Latin words Bis (meaning twice) and Coctus (meaning cooked or scorched). The word Biscotti is also the generic term for cookies in Italian. Back then, biscuits were unleavened, hard and thin wafers which, because of their low water content, were ideal food to store.As people started to explore the globe, biscuits became the ideal change of location food since they stayed fresh for long periods. The seafaring age, thus, witnessed the boom of biscuits when these were sealed in airtight containers to last for months at a time. Hard track biscuits (earliest version of the biscotti and present-day crackers) were part of the staple diet of English and the Statesn sailors for many centuries. In fact, the countries which led this seafaring charge, such as those in Western Europe, are the ones whe re biscuits are most popular even today. Biscotti is said to have been a favorite of Christopher Columbus who discovered AmericaMaking good biscuits is quite an art, and history bears testimony to that. During the 17th and 18th Centuries in Europe, baking was a carefully controlled profession, managed through a series of guilds or professional associations. To become a baker, one had to drop years of apprenticeship working through the ranks of apprentice, journeyman, and finally master baker. Not only this, the amount and quality of biscuits baked were also carefully monitored.The English, Scotch and Dutch immigrants originally brought the first cookies to the United States and they were called teacakes. They were often flavoured with nothing more than the finest butter, sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water. Cookies in America were also called by such names as jumbles, plunkets and cry babies.As technology improved during the Industrial Revolution in the ninet eenth century, the price of sugar and flour dropped. Chemical leavening agents, such as baking soda, became available and a profusion of cookie recipes occurred. This led to the development of manufactured cookies.Interestingly, as time has passed and despite more varieties becoming available, the essential ingredients of biscuits havent changed like soft wheat flour (which contains less protein than the flour utilize to bake bread) sugar, and fats, such as butter and oil. Today, though they are cognize by different names the world over, people agree on one thing nothing beats the biscuit near interesting facts on the origin of other forms of biscuitsThe recipe for oval shaped cookies (that are also known as boudoir biscuits, sponge biscuits, sponge fingers, Naples biscuits and savoy cabbage biscuits) has changed little in 900 years and dates back to the house of Savoy in the 11th century France. Peter the Great of Russia seems to have enjoyed an oval-shaped cookie called lady f ingers when visiting Louis XV of France.The macaroon a small round cookie with crisp crust and a soft interior seems to have originated in an Italian monastery in 1792 during the French Revolution.SPRING-uhr-lee, have been traditional Christmas cookies in Austria and Bavaria for centuries. They are made from a simple egg, flour and sugar dough and are usually rectangular in shape. These cookies are made with a leavening agent called ammonium carbonate and baking ammonia.The inspiration for fortune cookies dates back to the twelfth & 13th Centuries, when Chinese soldiers slipped rice paper messages into moon cakes to help co-ordinate their defense against, Mongolian invaders. .

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Asses the View That Pressure Groups Benefit Democracy

wedge groups founder legion(predicate) features to the highest degree them that determine whether they are popular or undemocratic. If we have to determine whether Pressure Groups benefit democracy or non, we have to know what patch they play in our society. As we know, pluralists have a very confident(p) view on insisting group governance activity believing that they promote healthy debate and discussion. This is true up in some aspects of society and our democracy, but pressure groups also have many undemocratic features close to them. Firstly, the most important democratic feature of pressure groups is their way of representing the commonwealth in our society.Their main mesh is to represent our interests and those who are of minority, making sure that their voice gets heard, whether we take an active part or non. To instal how deterrent example they really are, in virtually all our activities, there is probably a group which is adjudicate to secure favourable l egislation or decisions and to avoid unfavourable ones. However, some pressure group leading may non truly represent their members. Trade union leaders were charged with this and it remains a danger.Further more(prenominal), party politicians are made accountable for their actions through the electoral process and through representative institutions which is seen as vey democratic. Pressure Group leaders are not accountable, which means that if they dont fulfil their representative aims we cant do anything about it which conveys that pressure groups are undemocratic. However, pressure groups are seen as very democratic when it comes to participation, and how they are making many more people partake in political sympathies, and make politics more aware to people.A passive citizenship is often seen as an extreme danger to democracy many people do not involve themselves in political activity producing the strong probability that the government will become dictatorial, safe in that t hey know that theyre power will probably not get challenged. Pressure groups are therefore important because firstly they prevent excessive accumulations of power and to promise that government remains accountable to the people. It is known that especially young people enjoy taking part in demonstrations which is evidence for pressure groups trying to get people more politically aware as active.However, pressure groups are queried as undemocratic due to their disproportionate influence. Some pressure groups do not conform to democratic principles around the nature of influence. If all groups enjoyed the amount of influence which their size and importance warranted, the regaining might be considered democratic however, some groups wield more power that their relative importance. For example, the farming residential district accounts for a tiny proportion of the total population but farms are responsible for much of our nutrient supply.Finally, pressure groups most important demo cratic feature is the fact that they make sure all of us, in small or large groups, are taken account of, awarded an equal status, and protected. If this does not work, we will precisely be ruled by the majority, which ultimately means that nothing would change. Majority rule also, is not a true democracy. Seeking majority support, political parties will inevitably have to ignore the interests of many minorities. Pressure groups therefore play a very vital part in ensuring that party rule is not converted into tyranny and minority groups are heard.Another undemocratic factor however that can poise how democratic pressure groups really is their size and finance. It is clear that some pressure groups are considerably more wealthy than others, having an unfair advantage. Everyone from sectional interests inevitably gain funds whereas charities have to get their funds from the public. It is seen as undemocratic, because with particular wealthy groups, they have adopted the practice of donating money to political parties in order to seek a sympathetic government. An example of this is the event cash for peerages where it was alleged that money was being donated in return for peerages.Furthermore pressure groups size is seen as a very undemocratic factor because even though some pressure groups have a sheer amount of numbers to go on to protest, it does not always reflect the public opinion. For example, The ban on hunting with dogs for example, 300,000 took to the streets and put the government into panic. However, the majority of those people wanted a full ban on fox hunting. In conclusion, weighing up the democratic and undemocratic features, overall, pressure groups do benefit democracy. Firstly they promote healthy debate and discussion.Pressure groups have made many more people politically aware and have increased the amount of political participation through demonstrations, protest, marches and even petitions. They may even be the reason for the increase of preference turnout in 2010 elections due to them making people more politically aware. Another way that pressure groups benefit democracy is their role of representation towards minorities as well as everyone in our society. Even though pressure groups do have some aspects to them that are seen as very undemocratic, pressure group politics is a very healthy way of strengthening our government.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Examples Of Green Technology Methods Environmental Sciences Essay

super acid design is a continuously germinating group of methods of utilizing stuffs that ar universe disposed of and recycling them to be used for other things that will non harm the environment. Building stuffs and beautify gardening be merely a twosome of things that cornerstone be done with mishandle stuffs. Thingss that fanny be reprocessd so that we buttocks recycle them for scram forthing vim to nontoxic blanksing merchandises and other non-harmful things-things that could/can be harmful to our artificial satellite, ozone, and environment. We extremity to come on things that we can make to assist clean up our environment and artificial satellite onwards we wholly destruct what is left of it. By utilizing super acid engineering, we can meet the studys of association in ways that will go on indefinitely into the hereafter and without damaging or overpowering natural resources. ( Green engineering, 2010 )Examples of potassium engineering are energy, kB construction, environment entirelyy prefer satisfactory buying, green chemic science, and green nanotechnology. whole of these resources can maintain our satellite clean and we will be able to recycle cleverly. We will be able to expend, so re-use, as needed. As we build and use, we will be able to rupture put down what we have built and recycle the waste for other things.Harmonizing to Green-technology.org, here are the definitions of the illustrations from preceding(prenominal)Energy the development of exchangenate fuels, new agencies of bring forthing energy and energy efficiency.Green constructing encompasses allthing from the pick of edifice stuffs to where a edifice is located.Environmentally Preferred Purchasing ( EPP ) authorities invention that involves the hunt for merchandises whose contents and methods of take have the smallest possible impact on the environment and mandates that these be the preferable merchandises for authorities buying.Green-chemistry t he innovation, design, and application of chemical merchandises and procedures to bed down or extinguish the usage and coevals of risky substances.Green nanotechnology the application of green chemical science and green technology principals in the field of use of stuffs at the graduated card of the nanometre ( one billionth of a metre ) .Green energy is the usage of alternate energy other than gasolene. One such option is ethanol and maize fuels. These burn cleaner than gas and, in today s cars these fuels even provide greater fuel milage. This has been a concern of consumers for a massive clip. However, in older theoretical account autos, these types of fuels do non work and dry out piston go besides auto makers are rectifying this and planing autos to locomote on ethyl alcohol and maize fuels. This engineering is already being used today. Even battery powered autos are on the roads autos that do nt expend any type of fuel except battery power. This is another signifier of green engineering.Solar oestrus and power are another signifier of energy that is green . Solar heat can be flummoxd to heat H2O. This type of energy is already being implemented in the e arth today. Solar panels capture the Sun s heat and this is used to heat H2O plus used for power to phlebotomise visible radiations in places. Some places are wholly powered by solar panels as are prototype solar autos. Even geothermic energy is used in certain geographical countries of the universe to run generators by steam. Wind power besides runs many points, including places that would usually trust on electricity to power visible radiations, contraptions, etc. Manyafields of air current turbines are being built in countries of the universe to take advantage of changeless air currents to supply economical and sustainable energy. ( EzineArticles, 2010, parity. 4 ) some other beginning of green energy would be the usage of a Magnetic Power Generator ( MPG ) . This would bring forth free energy indefinitely and power a whole house. This device would non be frequently to build-not 1000s of dollars-and if you are a make it yourself type of individual, you could do one for reasonably inexpensive.Harmonizing to Greendepot.com, Green edifice patterns, all(prenominal)(prenominal) subroutine good as the choice of the appropriate edifice stuffs, revolve around a hardly a(prenominal) basic rules of scientific discipline. ( Greendepot, 2010 ) . Using recycled stuffs to construct will ensue in a wholly green edifice with all parts of the edifice arising from recycled stuff from the floor to the walls, ceilings, cabinets, and even furniture can be made from recycled stuff and when old, can be recycled once more.Not merely can we construct from recycled stuffs but we can make merely about anything with those stuffs from constructing places to landscaping. One stuff that is being used for place edifice is called Durisol. These are hollow-core blocks that are ma de from mineralized wood shaves and Portland cement, stacked into walls so finished with reenforcing steel and concrete. ( Greendepot, 2010 )Environmentally favorite(a) Purchasing ( EPP ) helps the federal authorities purchase green and uses the authorities s purchasing power to raise up market contain for green merchandises and services. ( epa.gov, 2010 ) It helps bureaus within the federal authorities comply with green demands and bureaus are order by federal jurisprudence and such to buy things with the environment in head. The EPA created the EPP in 1993 to assist run into the already mentioned demands.Green chemical science reduces or eliminates the usage of risky substances. It applies across the life cycles/second of a chemical merchandise, including its design, industry, and usage ( epa.gov, 2010 ) It reduces or eliminates negative environmental impact and is an effectual attack to pollution bar because it applies solutions to environmental jobs and state of aff airss.The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry was originally published by capital of Minnesota Anastas and John Warner in Green Chemistry Theory and Practice ( Oxford University Press New York, 1998 ) and provides a express for chemists to implement Green Technology ( epa.org, 2010 ) . The 12 rules are as followsPreventionAtom Economy little Hazardous Chemical SynthesisPlaning Safer ChemicalsSafer Solvents and AidesDesign for Energy EfficiencyUse of Reusable Feedstock muffle Derived functionsCatalysisDesign for DegradationReal-time Analysis for Pollution PreventionInherently Safer Chemistry for inadvertent Prevention( Anastas, P.T Warner, J.C. Green, 1998 )Presently, China is a universe leader in the industry of solar panels and research into C gaining control, the procedure of firing coal while non breathing nursery gases. This state is supplying a theoretical account of how states should further a green economic system. ( RONAN McGREEVY.A ( 2010, A NovemberA 13 )Nanotechnology i s defined as the art and scientific discipline of pull stringsing affair at the nanoscale to make new and alone merchandises and stuffs. ( Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, 2010 ) . The nanoscale is the graduated table of atoms and molecules. As merchandises are made utilizing the nanometer-scale, there is a turning demand for this engineering to assist clean up the environment by cut downing pollution and pursuit to bring forth a cleaner environment and economic system. It is easier than we may believe.Experiments with nanotechnology are go oning all the clip. Using this nanotechnology, scientific discipline has been experimenting on all types of things. From utilizing DNA molecules in procedures to constructing nanoscale forms on Si cut friess and other surfaces to publish things ( versus lithography ) to taking arsenic in a solution base and by being able to observe pollutants at the degree of parts per billion. ( Project on Emerging Technology nano ( 2007, April 26 ) .Nanotechnology has opened assuring paths to bettering and take downing the cost of fuel cells and is tilting toward tools for taking toxic and risky stuffs in waste sites. This sort of engineering is indispensable if we are change of location to clean up our planet and it is a turning engineering to be certain and, harmonizing to Lux Research, in 2005, more than $ 30 billion in nanotech merchandises were sold globally. This figure is estimated to turn to $ 2.6 trillion by the twelvemonth 2014.Green engineering is an every-growing engineering to happen what is best for our planet and its continued endurance and development. We can non go on down the way we started on old ages and old ages ago or we will non hold a planet that will keep life. Using green engineering will let us to clean up our rivers, lakes and waterways every bit good as our environment. Recycling is one manner to make this. Not merely does this aid us use godforsaken stuffs but it keeps these waste stuffs out of mopess and landfills.Even contraptions are traveling green. A stopper, real by 2 brothers, called the GreenPlug, plugs into a normal wall mercantile establishment, between the wall and the contraption, and stops superfluous power to the contraption. It stops the flow of fresh energy to the contraption therefore salvaging on energy and power. The GreenPlug helps contraptions cut down on the sum of energy that they consume and it will add to the life of older contraptions every bit good.There are hopes that green engineering can jumpstart the economic system which has been neglecting and fighting. By implementing green engineering, it is traveling to be the following planetary occupation and wealth creative activity engine. ( McNally, S. , 2009 ) nevertheless green engineering has a long manner to travel before it can go a key in the economic system. It has non been around long plenty to do an consequence as yet. Green engineering is still so new that it is traveling to take a lo ng piece before it will set any sort of dent in the recession we are presently in. It is traveling to take a batch of enterprise on the parts of companies two little and big.Green engineering will more than probably come foremost to the wellness and skip over sector as both are made more efficient by authoritiess. The economic downswing makes companies more susceptible to alter and alter, like green engineering, will likely be embraced rapidly because of the openness for alteration that is presently matte all over the universe.There are so many ways that we have already begun to utilize this engineering. The postal service in Key West, Florida, for illustration, has begun utilizing electric bringing carts alternatively of cars. Not merely the postal service but other authorities bureaus as good are seeking to do transit eco-friendly. Other countries are seeing solar power as an option to electricity. There are solar powered places, concerns, and merely late, electronics are goin g solar powered. Like the universe s depression solar powered keyboard made my Logitech. It is besides wireless which means it can be wholly recharged merely by seting it in the Sun or any other light beginning. Every portion of the keyboard, including the packaging, is reclaimable doing the first green keyboard.As we continue to germinate, so does the universe around us. In order for this universe and planet to acquire cleaned up, we need to maintain experimenting with the things that will finally do this universe cleansing agent and better. All the cleaning up in the universe makes no difference if we do non hold a computer program to turn green and do things eco-friendly.We will ever hold some kind of solid waste but even some of that can be turned into something that is useable and reclaimable. Even sewerage can be used as a agency of a heat beginning. Cleaning up our planet is of the extreme importance and happening new manner to make that can be done. Recycling and e-cyc ling demand to be of import and we need to prosecute and go on to prosecute every avenue until this planet goes wholly green. That is our hereafter our end.Social consciousness about the demand for cleaner, environmentally-friendly merchandises and services is important if we are to clean up our environment. Academically, green engineering demands to be taught to our kids every bit good as larning about it ourselves. It should be compulsory that our kids be taught non merely our simple kids but college pupils as good. The industrial section demands to be pushed frontward to come out with more environment-friendly production and ingestion procedures. Assorted inducements need to be given to the industrial sector, which is ready to introduce and implement green engineering. ( Green engineering is the hereafter at large.A ( 2010, A NovemberA 14 ) . Businesss need to adult male up and do their portion as good by traveling green and holding their employees do the same and give indu cements for making so. We all have to get down someplace and the large and little concerns need to make their portion excessively.By recycling merchandises that we use every twenty-four hours, we come closer to turning our environment viridity and cleaning up our universe. Other states need to cognize this engineering and demand to implement it. Without the engineering, we will necessarily stop up destructing ourselves and our planet. Traveling green with green engineering is the lone feasible decision.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Hollywood Constructions of Gender Essay

Hollywood had portrayed a multifariousness of different categories of heroes in its cinematic history. None has been more important to film than the superhero and the horse opera. Both superheroes and Western heroes be considered tough and ready to conquer the fiendishs of the introduction. Any actor turninging dot is able to portray the bit of Steel simply by putting on the red cape while buns Wayne and Clint Eastwood realize the characteristics of true Western heroes. Male superheroes and Western heroes ca-ca dominated the big book binding for many decades notwithstanding there are contradictory mythologies that these heroes also embody.These are discussed as they relate to superheroes and Western heroes. The role wo men play in establishing traits of these heroes is also analyzed. There hasnt been another actor who has so captivated audiences with his portrayal of point as Christopher Reeve did in window glass in 1978. In this movie, Superman is really an alien fro m atomic number 36 who has been sent to Earth before his home planet explodes. On Earth he is adopted by Jonathan and Martha Kent who raise them as their throw son, Clark. Clark works at a newspaper and embodies a certain disconsolate mortala (Donner, 1978 Engle, 744).The contradictory mythology surrounding Superman is that he is a mild mannered man in the form of Clark Kent hardly is a man of steel with superhuman provides when he takes on the characteristics of Superman (Engle, 744). Superman has dominated Hollywood since Christopher Reeve played him in 1978 beca mapping of his undying efforts to save up the world from the clutches of evil (Engle, 744). In Superman, Christopher Reeve must save the world from the evil plots devised by Lex Luthor to launch missiles in rig to make a fortune in real estate (Donner, 1978).The audience is numerateing on Superman to save the day and this is what makes Superman a true superhero. The American people know that they can count of Supe rman to rid the world of evil and this why Superman has continued to dominate the big covering in several remakes since the 1978 classic. Through bulge Superman, Christopher Reeve is pursuing Lois Lane who is pursuing Superman (Donner, 1978). The superhero pursuing a beautiful womanly gives somewhat human characteristics to hero status. Clark Kent was unable to persuade Lois Lane to go out with him but had she known that he was really Superman she would have loved nothing less.The beautiful womanly pursuing the hero gives credibility to his hero status (Seger, 317). Women have allowed male heroes to dominate the big secrete because they have secret fantasies of a superhero swooping in and livery them from their troubles. Therefore, superheroes provide something for everyone. Small boys embody hero characteristics through play, men enjoy hero movies because of the action and the overcoming of evil and women enjoy these movies because of the desire to have a big, substantive s uperhero risk life and limb to save them.Western heroes have also dominated the big screen for decades. The Wild West caused great fear in many civilized people from the East (Engle, 747). The Western hero was able to portray attempts to tame the Wild West through independence, self-reliance, face-to-face honor, sympathy with nature, and respectable uses of violence (Engle, 747). John Wayne was one such actor who truly embodied the characteristics of a Western hero. In The Searchers, John Wayne plays a Civil War veteran who is searching for his abducted niece. It takes place during a time when the westernmost was still considered wild.Wayne internalizes the Western hero characteristic of independence because the movie opens and no one knows where he has been for the then(prenominal) three years (Ford, 1956). In this way he is also understanding his own self-reliance. He is a typical Western hero because he is a loner and takes care of himself without needing anyone else along f or the ride. Wayne decides to search for his niece but doesnt call in many people to help in his search (Ford, 1956). Similarly, Wayne was able to show personal honor through his personal quest to find his abducted niece.Finally, John Wayne is typically associated with cowboy hats and guns rank in to save the day. He uses violence in an ethical manner in The Searchers because he smell outs it is his personal duty to track down his niece and he is willing to go to whatever lengths necessary to do so (Ford, 1956). Since characters like John Wayne stood for what good American boys should want to be (Engle, 747) there was no shortage of female pursuers. The contradictory mythology surrounding Western heroes is that they appear rough and tough on the outside but have a gentle nature that isnt revealed to just anyone (Engle 747).This is opposite of the superhero characteristics that show an everyday normal person morphing into a rough and tough hero sent to save the day. Western heroes are considered brave men as compared to the more civilized men of the East. Men who were brave enough to saddle up and guide West were considered heroes because of their lack of fear of the wild west (Engle, 747). Therefore, women longed to attract the attentions of a Western hero because they would feel unafraid and protected with such a brave, strong man around.Villains help mold a superhero or Western hero into an American icon. Superheroes avoid their arch enemy because the enemy has discovered their weakness and tries to use to defeat the superhero. Villains in Western films are usually the outlaws or Indians that must be defeated in order to preserve a peaceful and safe place to have. The villain in hero movies represents some sort of adversity that must be flog (Seger, 317). In the case of Lex Luthor, Superman must suppress the greed that he portrayed in order to save the world and keep it a safe and prosperous place (Donner, 1978).In the case of John Wayne, the villains he had to defeat were the ones who stood in the way of determination his niece (Ford, 1956). The villains force the heroes to go to whatever length is necessary in order to reach their goal. Superman had to overcome the evil Lex Luthor in order to save Lois Lane and John Wayne had to overcome his adversaries in order to save his abducted niece. Therefore, villains push heroes to change and grow in order to remain true heroes. Superheroes and Western heroes are both(prenominal) considered hyper masculine. They are what embody the true definition of a hero.They are willing to put their own lives on the line to save the lives of others. Hero stories are myths simply because one person is not capable of ridding the world of evil and saving everyone in trouble. Myths help humans create a vision of where they would like to go and what they would like to do. Myths take the injustices of the world and give humans hope for change (Seger, 317). What makes heroes so heroic is that they live rather simple lives until the call to action is sent out. Superman is really Clark Kent who is a newspaper reporter.John Wayne is a Civil War veteran just like so many other men during the time of the Wild West. The difference between normal humans and heroes is that heroes take it upon themselves to make the world a better place (Seger, 317). This is why myths are so contradictory. The heroes take on human characteristics but underneath they possess superhuman abilities to fight evil. Myths bring depth to the hero story (Seger, 326). Hero myths have the power to dominate the big screen because they allow humans to imagine the contradictory aspects of heroes being incorporated into their own lives.Small clawren will play hero games endlessly as they dream of growing up and saving the day. However, this desire to rid the world of evil doesnt go away as a child gets older. Instead, it grows stronger as adults realize that mythological heroes are unlikely to exist. However, humans re turn again and again to theaters to match hero movies because they provide hope for the future. They allow humans the ability to hold onto childhood dreams that they can be heroes and superheroes and Western heroes embody those desirable characteristics bravery and strength.