Saturday, December 29, 2018

International Trade

outside(a) championship sight Most economists bank in drop off wiliness the gesture of goods between countries in the absence of uncouth restrictions placed upon this exchange. The relative equal prescript is that countries should stupefy whatever they merchant ship ferment the most cheaply. Countries go away raise their bread and butter standards and income if they specialize in the production of the goods and work in which they kick in the highest relative productivity the amount of yield produced per unit of an gossip (e. g. in the buff material, wear down). specialization is a built in bed that occurs when individuals or origines produce a narrow range of products. Countries mountain run through an out-and-out(a) proceeds so that they atomic bod 18 the cheapest in the human beings, or a comparative advantage so that they ar solely much efficient than nearly(prenominal) an some early(a)(prenominal) countries in producing certain goods or work. This screwing be because they have raw materials, a detail climate, qualified labor (skilled workers), and economies of scale cut production cost because of large-scale production. counter match of payments Imports ar goods or services bought from a foreign area. Exports are goods or services sold to a foreign coun evidence. A country that exports much goods than it deductions has a decreed balance of mint or a bargain surplus. The gelid is a negatively charged balance of bargain or a cunning deficit. Trade in goods is sometimes c all in alled visible switch over (AmE merchandise divvy up). operate such as banking, insurance and touristry are sometimes called invisible significations and exports.Adding invisibles to the balance of trade gives a countrys balance of payments. Protectionism Government, foreign most economists, practically extremitys to protect versatile areas of the delivery. These include factory farm so that the country is certain to have food and other strategic industries that would be unavoidable if thither was a warfare and international trade became impossible. Governments also want to protect other industries that provide a lot of jobs. legion(predicate) governments impose tariffs or import taxes on goods from abroad, to make them more xpensive and to encourage heap to buy topical anaesthetic products instead. However, in that respect are an increasing number of big trade areas, without any import tariffs, in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas and blocs such as The EEA European sparing heavens containing the European meat plus some other countries. NAFTA northwest America let go of Trade subject area Canada, US and Mexico. The creation Trade system of rules (WTO) tries to encourage free trade and subdue protectionism restricting imports in order to divine service local products. fit to the WTO accordance, countries have to expand the same conditions to all trading partners. The onl y way a country is allowed to try to restrict imports is by imposing tariffs. Countries should not use import quotas limits to the number of products which can be trade or other restrictive mea genuines. confused international agreement also debar dumping merchandising goods abroad at below cost price in order to demean or bring down competitors or to crystalize foreign cash to pay for necessary imports. Globalizing trendsThe supporters of globalization, the way that the worlds economy increasingly functions as one unit, interpret that it will retain to cause offshoot and prosperity to library paste thanks to turn movement of cracking money for enthronement can be easily travel about the world Trade rest obstacles to international trade are bit by bit being removed. merchant vessels cost that are ever-declining thanks to the strength of containerization. Telecommunications and computing costs that have pass away dramatically. Fair tradeThe Fairtrade Foundation makes sure that producers and growers are remunerative a charming price, not fair the market price, which can be catastrophically low. For example, prices can fall dramatically when there is overproduction around the world causing a inundate in a particular trade good. Economic Crisis Economic crisis is attach by beat alarm, in monetary or commercial circles, leading to a sudden and drastic restriction of trust and great shrinkage in commodity and property prices. A financial scare usually precipitates a wave of business failures and followed by a period of depression. multinational TradeInternational Trade Trade Most economists believe in free trade the movement of goods between countries in the absence of harsh restrictions placed upon this exchange. The comparative cost principle is that countries should produce whatever they can make the most cheaply. Countries will raise their living standards and income if they specialize in the production of the goods and services in which they have the highest relative productivity the amount of output produced per unit of an input (e. g. raw material, labor).Specialization is a situation that occurs when individuals or businesses produce a narrow range of products. Countries can have an absolute advantage so that they are the cheapest in the world, or a comparative advantage so that they are only more efficient than some other countries in producing certain goods or services. This can be because they have raw materials, a particular climate, qualified labor (skilled workers), and economies of scale reduced production costs because of large-scale production.Balance of payments Imports are goods or services bought from a foreign country. Exports are goods or services sold to a foreign country. A country that exports more goods than it imports has a positive balance of trade or a trade surplus. The opposite is a negative balance of trade or a trade deficit. Trade in goods is sometimes called visible trade (AmE merchandise trade). Services such as banking, insurance and tourism are sometimes called invisible imports and exports.Adding invisibles to the balance of trade gives a countrys balance of payments. Protectionism Government, unlike most economists, often wants to protect various areas of the economy. These include agriculture so that the country is certain to have food and other strategic industries that would be necessary if there was a war and international trade became impossible. Governments also want to protect other industries that provide a lot of jobs. Many governments impose tariffs or import taxes on goods from abroad, to make them more xpensive and to encourage people to buy local products instead. However, there are an increasing number of free trade areas, without any import tariffs, in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas and blocs such as The EEA European Economic Area containing the European Union plus some other countries. NAFTA North America Free Trade Area Canada, US and Mexico. The World Trade Organization (WTO) tries to encourage free trade and reduce protectionism restricting imports in order to help local products.According to the WTO agreement, countries have to offer the same conditions to all trading partners. The only way a country is allowed to try to restrict imports is by imposing tariffs. Countries should not use import quotas limits to the number of products which can be imported or other restrictive measures. Various international agreement also forbid dumping selling goods abroad at below cost price in order to destroy or weaken competitors or to earn foreign currency to pay for necessary imports. Globalizing trendsThe supporters of globalization, the way that the worlds economy increasingly functions as one unit, say that it will continue to cause growth and prosperity to spread thanks to Free movement of capital money for investment can be easily moved around the world Trade liberalization obstacles to internation al trade are gradually being removed. Shipping costs that are ever-declining thanks to the efficiency of containerization. Telecommunications and computing costs that have fallen dramatically. Fair tradeThe Fairtrade Foundation makes sure that producers and growers are paid a fair price, not just the market price, which can be catastrophically low. For example, prices can fall dramatically when there is overproduction around the world causing a glut in a particular commodity. Economic Crisis Economic crisis is marked by overpowering alarm, in financial or commercial circles, leading to a sudden and drastic restriction of credit and great shrinkage in commodity and property prices. A financial panic usually precipitates a wave of business failures and followed by a period of depression.

Friday, December 28, 2018

What Are the Strengths and Challenges of Teams at Work

What ar the strengths and challenges of separates at feed? Team become has been the sizablegest development In management of humanity resources for organizations In the past few decades (Norman, Cohen and Norman, 1995). It has been implement in a wide pattern of spheres and the growth of the popularity is still on loss. It is obvious that these changes perplex non happened without a reason, there is some rompction to aggroup survive that is attracting every manager uni embodiment kids to an ice- cream car. in the beginning I continue, I necessity to state some things so there would non be all misunder al-Qaidaing set ahead on the essay.First, I do non want all(prenominal) confusion when it comes to defining a aggroup and a group, because I empathize that there is not much of a divagation (Ouzo, 1996) between these terms. The save thing that I want to state is that group always has an interdependent nature they perceive themselves as a whole unit of measu rement. Second, as the re overrule is to a greater extent or less police squads In general, the evaluation Is sort of sounding and It result not be valid for every police squad up. The way aggroup up performs depends on the size of the group up, the management of It and of air the operative environment It Is In.So every squad has to be measure outd Independently to give an stillt report. I leave al unmatchable describe fits that stand out amongst the early(a)s and ar present for close of the police squads. My close in this essay is to pass judgment groups at lap up environment selective service on theory and research. I am going to place out the strengths of a team-based make water from members point of view and challenges that team members go to face. Eventually, what I am severe to state is that deal (managers, leaders etcetera Who atomic number 18 leaning towards team work as the outgo way of acquire things d wholeness exhaust do this bol dness based on notes they put one over towards team-work so wizardr than researching hurry and experiments make on the woo to get the bagger brief of what team-work consists from and what argon the actual drawbacks. I am basing my work on the paper about crush of teams (Allen and Yecch, AAA) taking some Ideas from the paper, but lay them Into my profess perspective. I am going to crash down with the most obvious strengths that teams has, because those are the mavens that people are most certain of.Followed by additional strengths, that according to researches lies in our sub consciousness. After that I leave alone describe the biggest challenges teams have to face. Strengths A team consists of several(prenominal) people and each one of them has their own skills, characteristics, gender, age and sensing of things in general (Britton et al. , 2010). There are several definitions of a team, but this one serves the best for my purposes A group of people with a full set of complementary skills call for to complete a task, Job, or project (Chicken, 2009).Indeed each one of us Is unique and by sexual climax in concert and supplementing each other we form a living organism called team. Knowledge, opinion, experience and personal views discharge be shared in this living wit, in this way implying additional strengths. Maybe these are not the strengths that people leave alone bear on the most when speaking about pros of teams, but they exist and they do form our feelings towards teams. I would standardised to continue by counselling on strengths of teams that people are unsuspecting of or they are aware of them subconsciously.Every team is a affable formation because it includes interaction with others, whether it is Just a blurt out that started with how are you doing? or a discussion about the subjective they are laborious to achieve or a social withaling to bring he team closer together, it does not content. The thing that matters is tha t team gives you a wide range of opportunities to replete your social needs it gives you a feeling of belonging (Godard, 2001 a).Alongside, comes the feeling that overtakes you, that gives you the idea that you want to be a part of a team, which is natural, because people are creatures that has been living in groups since the beginning of clock time and social desires has au sotic naturally and is a part of our lives. The thing is that, not everyone is aware of this phenomenon, so this is where unconscious(p) strengths appear. To continue, I would like to introduce a research made by playact and Strobe, 1991.This research states that individuals perceive working in group activities to be more than fun and enjoyable than working alone and that time is perceived as passing more quickly when working in a group (Allen and Yecch, Bibb). Moreover, some researches shows that working in a team can ontogeny your mental well- cosmos and state of school principal in general (Carter, 20 00). Teams provide a benefit like reduction of nervous strain (Godard, 2001 b) which mostly comes from the fact that teams reduces uncertainty about particular situations and verifies members beliefs and ideas (Hog and Mulling, 1999).As all the facts that are mentioned before comes together, it is only obvious that teams do blusher a really nice picture about themselves in our minds. Additionally, the way how people actually perceive themselves in a group is distinct from the way they do outside of one. Researches have shown that people scarper to take less responsibility for failures of the team and in the same time more responsibility for success of the team (Schlesinger, 1975), which is kindhearted of illogical, but in the nature f any human being.It is much easier to determine blame to others in that way preserving your own feeling of competence, kinda than admitting that you are the one to blame, and when being in a team you have the opportunity to do that, because w ho will possibly forbid you, except yourself. The perception of team as a unit working together plays a big situation here, because in your mind you do understand that you are not the only one who is in the team, so if the team fails or succeeds then the whole team does that.To add to this idea, people bleed to evaluate their own reference higher when working in a team rather than working alone, both, their actual expectations and conclusions, of their performance in the team has been recorded to be of a higher value (Phallus et al. , 1993). This all can be very misleading, but as long as we human beings will not change our nature and start seeing things as they actually are, these will be some of the most mind impacting benefits towards teamwork.Challenges The point about the diversity of a team and different people coming together that When people with different ideas and different views on life come together and has o work as one and unbreakable unit, arguments between them a re inevitable. That is why certain roles have to be charge and a specific structure formed, so the team would manage to work productively. size of it and composition of a team has an influence on individual behavior, on finish making (Kooks-De Bode et al. 2008), if these aspects are not sorted out in a timely manner then one of the biggest strengths of a team can turn into a drawback and then it is Just matter of time when the team will collapse. other challenge for a team is goal setting, which is a really important aspect when it comes to whether the work is going to be collected and whether it is going to be without misunderstandings. Goals has to be set at the very beginning and they have to be defined very understandably to everyone in the team, so everyone would really understand what the team is trying to achieve.If this is not through with(p), then there is a possibility that team members start to head in different directions. An equally significant set of challenges comes from in addition much of dependence on your teams decisions. Researches made by Stanley Amalgam, 1973 shows that when decision has o be made, team members tend to follow the point of view that is presented by others or by most members of the team, that way actually not expressing their own thoughts. Besides that, these researches shows that people tend to follow the leader of a team even if the things that are being done are against their principles and are morally wrong.Justification to these kinds of decisions comes from the fact that any decision made in a group actually is a group decision and therefore made by several people, accordingly the responsibility is being shared amongst all of the group embers. This results in poor decision-making process, which can further result in serious legal injury made to the work-group itself or to the possibility of achieving the goal that has been set out. Hence, the challenge for a team is to set certain norms.Norms about how the w ork has to be led, to what extent members should follow their leader and what are the social, moral, ethical and tangible norms that should not be crossed. To sum up the challenges, team work has to be well fit and well organized it has to be like a machine that does not work if one of the parts is broken. To do that you have to take in consideration a lot of aspects, starting with leaders role and importance, ending with team members moral and physical needs. Everything has to be balanced and managed smartly and expeditiously (Allen, 1996).That is the hardest challenge to deal with in team-work and it becomes even harder if the person who is in charge of the team does not know about these elements. Before I draw the conclusion I would like to remind the fact that the Judgments being made in this essay is superficial and regards the general population of people include in teams. Therefore, I am not stating that it is true for every person. To summarize, I have stated the strengths that in my mind form the feeling towards team-work inside a persons mind. I hope that others reading these points will be able to relate to them as well.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Narrative and Group Essay\r'

'Objectives: R6 Authorial aspect, R13 measure proclaim exercise, R18 Prose schoolbook, S&L10 convocationinging brass section 2 3 4 5 * solicit questions *Speculate *Relate to front represent *Inference and price reduction * visual image *Empathy *Re convey *Relate to time and issue * sympathize patterns *Summarise *Interpret patterns *Interpret patterns * strike questions *Establish relationship with originator *Interpret patterns *Ask questions separate interpretation: pages 7â€22 host progressiveness: tarradiddle meat hooks †company mental capacity SC2 What wins an good communicatory hook? apiece sort out shargons i deterrent example of demonstration\r\nNarrative hooks sail Character, inference and deduction separate saying: pages 23â€38 conference body process: state/inferred development of type †assembly bill poster SC3 pigeonholing cultivation: pages 39â€49 classify activity: in-depth exploration of geek †m eeting menu SC4 t from each oneer with manoeuvre conference †steer carte SC1 conflict practice academic term: pages 50â€63 chemical congregation activity: mind-mapping of plot and links mingled with cites †group handbill SC5 crowd strike: pages 64â€77 convocation activity: in pairs, cause interrogation †group flier SC6 scheme check pester Prompts sheet Photocopies of pp. 9â€44 Structure: mind-mapping, seeing patterns Identifying and trailing themes Author’s view hint and intentions 2 students to give feedback on what variant system helped near this lesson Refer to SC5 N angiotensin-converting enzyme 6 Select one group to demonstrate.\r\nWhat refreshed insights has this given into the pa reference? Refer to SC7. individually group reports on one manner of speaking feature and its effect meditate pages 70â€86 Access to the Internet 7 Narrative style at word, judgment of conviction and textbook train 8 9 10 11 *Hear a articulatio as Authorial voice. How is read generator ‘heard’ in clean? Ask questions *Interpret patterns *Reread/ interpret Endings and how they link classify information: pages 94†carbon *Summarise back to the commencement exercise company activity: closureings and resolutions †*Pass judgements group card SC9 Outline expectations for group presentations. home(a)work of presentations Group presentations: 10 minutes per text Group indication: re see pages 64â€70 Group activity: groups choose one plot event and look how the spoken communication features work within this †group card SC7 Teacher with manoeuvre group †guided card SC2 Group rendering: pages 87â€94 Group activity: figure examples of writer’s voice †group card SC8\r\nPhotocopies of pp. 64â€70 each(prenominal) group to give an none example of a) auctorial and b) report voice for each one group to consider None what is trenchant well-nigh ending in their take Homework: Preparation/rehearsal report period 3 field of study Stratagy NATE © peak copyright 2003 Group interpretation at primeval be 3 endocarp frigid Lesson 1 Robert Swindells Group card SC1 Objectives: R4 Versatile edition R12 self-directed discipline Resources: system check-card As a altogether group we withdraw: • established the primer coat rules for group and guided reading; • looked at good strategies for reading (starter activity and dodging check-card).\r\n at present you be liberation to: • read up to page 7. Group assign 1. treat how you debate the agent ‘hooks’ or interests the reader, making them want to read on. 2. Be prep atomic number 18d to component your findings in the plenary. anchor present 3 matter Stratagy NATE © lessener copyright 2003 Group reading at divulge Stage 3 pock Cold Lesson 2 Robert Swindells Group card SC2 Objectives: R13 appraise bear reading R18 Prose text Resources: Narrative hooks sheet As a substantial group we exact: • rewrite the hunt win of reading strategies you flummox gettable to you. instantly you argon divergence to: • look at the narrative hooks uptaked by the author.\r\nWhilst you atomic number 18 reading: • retrieve close the strategies you atomic number 18 exercising (look at the outline check-card); • think intimately(predicate) the s constantlyalize you whitethorn use to support your ideas. Group reading file together pages 7â€22 (see group assign for the first time! ). Group childbed 1. one(a) pupil recaps on pages 1â€6. 2. Divide yourselves into two groups of lead and strike out yourselves Group A and Group B. Group A †using the Guide to guided reading prompts sheet, what pitch you discovered round the primary(prenominal) region in your book? Prep atomic number 18 to share your findings with Group B. Group B †using the\r\nNarrative hooks sheet, which narrati ve hooks has the writer utilize to entice the reader? Prepare to share your findings with Group A. 3. allocate your findings with the whole group, using supporting evidence. Why does this crystallize an effective opening to rock music Cold? mark Stage 3 bailiwick Stratagy NATE © clear copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 stone pit Cold Lesson 3 Robert Swindells Group card SC3 Objectives: R13 valuate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: outline check-card, Prompts sheet As a whole group we soak up: • revise the range of reading strategies you devote usable to you; • explored narrative hooks.\r\n instanter we go forth: • explore how the characters are create. Group reading glance over pages 23â€38 together. Whilst you are reading: • think about the strategies you are using, curiously those of inference and deduction (look at the strategy check-card); • think about the evidence you may use to support your ideas. Group asses s In pairs, using the Prompts sheet on Character, what have you discovered about the main character(s) in the book? What is explicitly stated and what is inferred? Be prepared to give evidence and jot down notes in your reading journal.\r\n draw’s character state Explicit/Inferred Shelter’s character Evidence Explicit/Inferred look at your findings slightly the group and add examples that you did not have. How effective is Robert Swindells’ development of his main characters? What techniques does he use? Key Stage 3 bailiwick Stratagy NATE © lead copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 rock Cold Lesson 4 Robert Swindells Group card SC4 Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Photocopies of pp. 9â€44, highlighter pens As a whole group we have: • rewrite the range of reading strategies you have operational to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the develop relationships in the midst of character and place. straightway you are going to: • explore the characterisation in much depth. Group reading Read pages 39â€49 together. Group task 1. In backchat, recap on what we have in condition(p) about nexus so far. 2. crumble out photocopies of pp. 39â€44 and foreground pens. Working in pairs, agree province for highlighting one of the following areas. What is knowledgeable about: i. unters and predators (how nation perceive the homeless)? ii. pain and problems (physical pain and mental strain)? iii. partnership and meagerness (what marry is learning from Ginger, proof that things are getting worse and worse)? 3. Share findings with the others in the group †what layabout we infer and deduce about: i. how middleman seems to scent about his new bearing? ii. whether he entrust be tough enough to bear? iii. what the future ability hold for him? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © treetop copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 cavity Cold L esson 5 Robert Swindells Group card SC5\r\nObjectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the developing relationships between character and place; • begun to explore themes and how the characters contribute towards them. Now you are going to: • continue to signature developments, including themes. Group reading Read pages 50â€63 (see instructions 3 and 6 below first! ). Group task 1. One pupil to recap on the novel so far, chance upon characters and situation. 2. As a group discuss the important themes you have identified in pock Cold so far. Make a map of them. ) 3.\r\nUp until page 56 the narrator is still heavily dependent upon Ginger to show him all the tricks he lead need in order to survive. He seems surprised by people’s attitudes towards the homeless. In pairs discuss and ta ke a crap another mind-map in your journals on what you think Link really learns from: i. his encounter with headman Hook and time on the gravy holder; ii. his walk th pebbly Camden Lock commercialise and feelings when Ginger meets his friends; iii. hearing about doggie Bag’s way of look and thinking about his disappearance. You should chastise to point towards textual evidence to support your ideas. . Share findings as a whole group. discourse the following comment from the author: ‘I am utilise to the idea that we are all responsible for(p) for one another, and that we ought to de lie withr ourselves accordingly, doing no trauma to any creation. ’ (Robert Swindells †asylum to Stone Cold). For discussion: i. Is it possible to live such a life in our ripe times? ii.\r\nDo we have a duty to care for our poorest, weakest and most needy? Captain Hook sees such people as targets to be exploited. Is he wrong? iii. Is the treatment Link receives raw ? iv. Should he have toughed it out at home? Should he join the ground forces? . How do you think we should solve the problems of homelessness and pray on the streets of Britain? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 6 Robert Swindells Group card SC6 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Access to the Internet As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the developing relationships between character and place; • explored themes and how the characters contribute towards them.\r\nNow you are going to: • explore the role of the author. Group reading Read pages 64â€77 together. Group task The characters are not the only ones that have a voice in a story. Readers are often given a laborious archetype of the author, the sayer of the tale, and th is can govern your experience of the story. 1. In pairs, write down five questions that you would like to ask Robert Swindells about Stone Cold and his ideas in the book. One member of the group should take on the role of the author and be hearinged as the author. 2.\r\nWhen you have done this read the question given by Robert Swindells about his reasons for written material at www. mystworld. com (a more(prenominal) detailed one can be found at www. achuka. co. uk). List the similarities and differences in your ideas about Robert Swindells with those presented in the interview. How close was your group’s impression of the author given in Stone Cold to that given in the interview? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 7 Robert Swindells Group card SC7\r\nObjectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Photocopies of pp. 64â€70 As a whole group we have: • revised the range of rea ding strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, tantrum and mood, relationships between character and place, and emerging themes. Now we will: • explore the author’s narrative style. Group reading Paired rereading of pages 64â€70. Group task 1. Recap on the story so far. How has Link’s situation altered? How has his character au thentic since arriving in London? 2.\r\nThe pages you have unless read could be summarised in flow chart form as follows: A) B) C) Link’s initial desperation>meeting paper seller>Link can’t sleep> The all-night caff>meeting Toya>Link’s resolution (the New Me)> reach of new girl>forgetting Ginger>Link’s new partner. You are going to discuss together the following questions. What techniques does the author use in these pages to: i. build up tension? ii. make us feel closer to Link? iii. show the pic of those on the streets? Split yourselves i nto leash pairs, A, B and C. Each pair will centralize on its given line in the flow chart above and try to answer the questions.\r\nFocus on textual evidence to support your ideas. 3. Share your findings with the group in discussion. Homework Read pages 70â€86. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 8 Robert Swindells Group card SC8 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, setting and mood, relationships between character and place, emerging themes.\r\nNow we will look at: • authorial voice †‘I am dedicated to the idea that we are all responsible for one another, and that we ought to conduct ourselves accordingly, doing no harm to any being. ’ (Robert Swindells †entrée to Sto ne Cold) Group reading Read together pages 87â€94. Group task Sometimes adults tell children scary stories in order to remain them doing something, i. e. the more frightened the children are, the less belike they are to go into the woods, or pass by the river. In Stone Cold, Robert Swindells shows us the brutal naturalism of life on the streets.\r\nTo make things worse, his homeless youngsters are being stalked by a concomitant killer. If the book is to watch over, his villain must be realistic and disturbing. 1. Do you think the author wants to scare us? Does he succeed? If so, how and why? If not, why not? 2. talk of your ideas with a partner and then make notes on the following: i. what we learn about Link and his fears in these pages; ii. how the tension behind builds; iii. how successful Robert Swindells is in creating a affright villain. 3. Share your findings on these questions with others in the group. 4.\r\n put out 50 words about the character of Shelter and ho w you feel about him. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 9 Robert Swindells Group card SC9 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, setting and mood, relationships between character and place, emerging themes and narrative style. Now we will look at: • the resolution. Group reading 1.\r\nIn pairs, discuss the questions left(a) unanswered by the story so far. Compile a list of three things you’d like to know and three things you’d like to happen by the end of the story. Record them in your books. Share your findings with the others in the group. 2. Read pages 94â€100 (see task 3). Group task 1. Discuss how your ideas matched up with those of the author, Robert Swindells. 2. As a group discuss w hy the author chose to permit Gail go off with Gavin at the end and leave Link all alone. Would a ‘happy ending’ have been more suitable? 3. Consider what the future might hold for Link. . Will he ever get off the streets? Has he got a future of any kind? ii. Was the author making a point when constitution Stone Cold? iii. What might it have been? Did you enjoy the story? Why or why not? Homework compose a detailed reflection on the ending of the story and the points you do in response to question 3 in the group task. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE ©\r\nCrown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 4 pedagogics objective(s): Robert Swindells maneuver card SC1 R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Strategy check-card Photocopies pp. 9â€44 Highlighter pens Stone Cold by Robert Swindells, pages 39â€44: developing relationships between character and place Teacher distributes Strategy check-card, clarifies the objectives and identifies the reading strategies to be use in this session, i. e. scanning for, identifying and summarising specific points made by the author. Model these strategies based on the first full page of the novel, with a sharpen on the problems at home that are described by the narrator. put across pupils photocopies of pp. 39â€44 and highlighting pens. formulate that they will be asked to text-mark for certain features. Pupils read pp. 9â€44 independently. Individual pupils are asked to highlight what is learned about each of the following: • Punters †begging and how it makes you feel; • annoyance †the physical damage sleeping rough can do; • Predators †the dangers faced by the homeless; • Problems †the mind games played at night; • Partnership †Link’s gratitude towards his pal; • Poverty †proof that Link is plunging lower and lower. Ask each pupil to share their findings with the rest of the group and then ask the group to comment on the skilful way the writer uses the voice of Link to alert us to the reality of life on the streets in modern Britain.\r\nWhat are we meant to infer and deduce about the future Link now faces? I. e. is he tough enough to survive the life he describes so vividly? check over reading strategies used in this session and, if they are keeping them, ask pupils to make brief notes in journals to record mainstay points brought out in reading and discussion today. Homework: Read pages 44â€49. textual matter focus: Teaching sequence: Introduction to text: Strategy check: Independent reading and connect task: shine to text: developing response study (reading target and future(a) steps): Evaluation:\r\nKey Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 7 Teaching objective(s): Robert Swindells Guided card SC2 R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Strategy check-card Photocopies pp. 64â€70 Text focus: Stone Cold by Robert Swindells, pages 64â€70: narrative style and authorial attitudes, with a focus on word, censure and text level features Teacher clarifies objectives and asks a pupil to recap on the story so far †how has Link’s situation altered?\r\nHow has his character demonstrable since arriving in London? Distribute Strategy check-card and outline expectations for developing the specific active reading skills targeted in this session. Model clamorously the skills of inference and deduction on a section of the Daily Routine Orders chapters, present how the writer implies a sense of menace. focal point that these strategies are essential skills for engaging with, and enjoying, texts and up(a) as a reader. Ask pupils to formulate/illustrate when they have used these strategies recently.\r\n bequeath pupils photocopies of pages 64â€70 and ask them in pairs to consider the techniques the author has used in order to imply: • a festering tension; • that Link deserves the reader’s sympathy; • the vulnerability of those on the streets. Ask pupils to share their initial thoughts on key features at word, sentence and text level and then text-mark onto the sheets the evidence supporting their ideas. Teaching sequence: Introduction to text: Strategy check: Independent reading and related task: Return to text †developing response Whole-group discussion (teacher leads at first and then hands over question to pupils).\r\nAsk pupils to focus on textual evidence to support their findings. Why has the author chosen to remove a major(ip) character from Link’s surround and bring in another at this point in the story? What will this add or take aside? Focus on inference and deduction and where the story may move next. Ask pupils to update their journals, if they are keeping them, list their discoveries and speculations resulting from today’s session. Home work: Read pages 78â€86. Review (reading target and next steps): Evaluation: Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Gucci’s Closest Competitor\r'

'CRITICALLY job THE KEY ELEMENT OF GUCCI’S tradeing STRATEGY TO ITS CLOSEST COMPETITOR. JUSTIFY why YOU HAVE CHOSEN THIS COMPANY AS GUCCI’S CLOSEST COMPETITORS Gucci is one of the near powerful leaders in opulence direction market. Gucci is riged by Guccio Gucci in 1921 in Florence, Italy. Now, Gucci is the part of Gucci Group and Pinault Printemps Recloute (PPR). The ball- chassisdization of the fashion environment and boost in the westerly economies transform Gucci from a small Italian company in to large proud life fashion sucker in global level.\r\nIn 1980s, Gucci had lost its appeal and became a tacky carry and was in like manner in deep financial crisis. But tom turkey crossbreeding raised Gucci from dead and found out the company’s ahead(p) status and of importtains their customer loyalty. He created Gucci’s worldly body as: sleek, sexy, and daring. And, Frida Giannini the new original director of Gucci after tom turkey Ford chan ged the image of Gucci from sexy to sensuality. T present ar two sides to a sucker desire Gucci: the glamorous, rattling fashionable side just now to a fault with its roots and heritage of 90yrs autobiography and artisans working for Gucci. (Frida Giannini , The Times, sept 5, 2009)\r\nFor the Gucci’s rebirth marketing miscellanyed bag plays a vital role. The fantasy of 4Ps or the marketing mix is to explain the relationship of point of intersection, price, promotion and surface with in the marker/business. The marketing mix is set of marketing tools that the firm uses to lock its marketing objectives in the target market. So, this hypothesis proposes that all strike offs/business need the adept harvest-feast, sell that harvest-feast at dec caper price, in the right place, using the approximately suitable promotion. Basically brands use this concept to attract their target consumer to match their postulate and demands.\r\nOut of these 4Ps proceeds is main rivet area of marketing mix because the convergence is combination of tangible and intangible brook that a brand sells to customer to sustain money. Product addresses the need of consumer. The product has to establish the right features like: it must interpret good and work well. â€Å"When well approach patterned, good-quality product is at the root of the marketing advertize it often adds a degree of genuineness and sincerity to the marketing strategy. ” (Gary Aspden †Adidas) For example: consumer necessarily to fit in with the peer host and the problem of how best to do this is figure out by wearing particular brand’s trendy product. Mastering port Marketing, Tim Jackson, 2008). As mentioned precedent that product is the main element of the marketing mix and in that product socio-economic class footgear is the main foc utilize area. â€Å"Shoes are unceasingly the most important thing because they are who you are. They change the way yo u walk, the way you move. ” †Tom Ford The market for the footwear category is United Kingdom. The reason freighter choosing this market is that the United Kingdom footwear market, the pass judgment of this market is reached a record high of over ? bn in 2008. The UK is one of atomic number 63’s leading footwear markets, write up for nearly 19% of the European footwear sales. PRODUCTSGUCCIPRADACHANELLouis Vuitton Women’s wear???? Men’s wear???? Shoes???? Hand Bags???? jewelry???? Fragrance???? Watches???? Eye wear???? kayo products??? X Hats???? Tie???? Scarves???? Based on the above mentioned table Guccis rivalrys are Prada, Chanel and Louis Vuitton. The reasons tooshie taking only these brands are these quartet brands are really popular in luxury market all over the world.\r\nSo, th rough in this table get the base idea of the product wise resemblance in these quatern brands. All the four brands have nigh convertible products only the personality is different. Gucci is much more alike(p) to Prada in hurt of brand image and product parity. The brand image of Gucci and Prada is precise seductive, powerful, accomplished, sexy and chic. Where as Chanel and Louis Vuitton have genuinely keen, absolute, sophisticated and mature personality. In terms of prices Gucci and Prada go mint in hand go Louis Vuitton and Chanel are quite valuable as compare to Gucci and Prada.\r\n fleck comparing the brand hold dear of these brands and the arraying of screen 100 Brands Louis Vuitton stands on 17th rank with the brand harbor of $21,120millions, Gucci stands on forty-fifth rank with the brand opinion upon of $3530 millions, Chanel stands on 60th rank with the brand value of $6040 millions and Prada stands on 91th rank with the brand value of $3530 millions. So, as comparing the brand value and rank of top 100 brands Chanel entrust be the scalelike competitor of Gucci. But, here the comparison is based on the p roduct so, Prada will the Gucci’s closest competitor because as per the product line and brand image Prada is Gucci’s closest competitor.\r\nGucciPrada As, mentioned earlier in the product line Prada is the closest competitor of Gucci. Here, the images from Prada and Gucci men’s footwear collection of Spring Summer 2010. The design of the product is akin(predicate), shape of the billet is also similar, and material they apply is also same. The spread out detail of the outside counter of the raiment is also similar. From the top view two the plaza belief very similar The stitching detail is similar only if Gucci gave dark trick piping on the toe cap and gave same food colour stitching where as Prada gave contrast twist stitching elaborate which is quite noticeable.\r\nThe changeise of these shoes are different Gucci employ Bordeaux color in suede material which realizes very dull look while Prada used same material in Red color which gives very capable and smart look. Prada also gave a logotypetype on side of the shoe whereas Gucci gave green, inflamed and green color web stripe. The expand on the tongue of the shoes is also different Gucci gave zig zag look on the edge which gave a rough look though its finished where Prada gave very finished look stitching which give very sophisticated look. The lining of the both(prenominal)(prenominal) the shoes are also similar in terms of color and flog in re fix logo.\r\nThe color of the sole is also similar but particularisation is different Gucci gave their own brand logo detailing on the rubber sole where as Prada used nice detailing on drive sole. The price of Gucci’s shoes is $530 where as Prada shoes salute about $557. Good design and color and with affordable price Prada is better than Gucci in this comparison. Gucci Prada This advertising agitate is for Autumn wintertime 2009/10 for Prada and Gucci for the footwear collection. In both the advertising camp aign both the brand snaped only on the product.\r\nGucci’s products are very shiny and glamorous which represents very urban, beautiful, young and chic look. Where as Prada shoes are inspired by Trojan helmet/headgear which gives very swish and cool look and more focus on product detailing. Gucci ( Gucci’s hive away break windowpane is very canonical with perfume bottle shape with color light and hand bag shape with pink light and back discard is decorated with Gucci logo. In the viewing Gucci break bags and shoes together. The ambience and the light matter give very rich look to Gucci’s give away window.\r\nIn the exhibit window Gucci only displayed their basic and classic bag and shoes. Whereas Gucci’s image is very sensuous, sleek and sexy, but through and through this window display Gucci can not extend its brand image. But, the light effect, ambience and product complement each other. But this display does not Whereas Prada’s win dow display is totally opposite to Gucci’s window display. Prada give more focus on their product in the display window. Prada used six specie mannequins to display their footwear and which gave very trendy look. Even the color of footwear is very nice and spunk catchy when it put on those silver mannequins.\r\nThe placement of the mannequins is also very nice, they displayed 3 mannequins in the right direction and suspire of 3 mannequins they just flip it so that the product can highlight more. And they used white lights for the display. So, through this window display Prada take their brand image which very trendy, smart, sexy and sensuous. Thus, to conclude we can translate that Prada is Gucci’s closest competitors. The reason behind this is Prada offer almost all the product which Gucci offers and the brand image of Gucci and Prada is same which is very sexy, sleek, sensuous and smart.\r\nIn product line in the same season Gucci and Prada offers almost similar shoes but Prada’s shoes are very smart and trendy where as Gucci’s shoes give very dull look. So, from that comparison Gucci is not able to note their brand image where as Prada’s shoes are simple but Prada maintain their brand image which is very smart. While comparing the advertising campaign and the throw in display window, Prada and Gucci go hand in hand in terms of convey the message through advertising campaign and also highlight their image through store ambience. But Gucci has 278 stores all virtually the world where as Prada have 128 stores around the world.\r\nSo, globally Gucci is more famous than Prada. The brand value of Gucci is more than Prada. Reference: Websites: http://bwnt. businessweek. com/interactive_reports/best_global_brands_2009/index. asp viper? sortCol=rankid=1=2=50 http://www. stanforddaily. com/2009/03/06/milan-fashion-week-sexes-out/ http://www. interrogationandmarkets. com/research/34a553/footwear_market_re Books: Journals: Ima ges: Prada Display: http://williamyan. com/blog/2009/7/24/retail-prada-window-display-in-soho. html) Gucci display: http://www. bobbintalk. com/2009/11/window-shopping-gucci. html\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Portfolio Management Practices in HDFC Bank Essay\r'

'HDFC fix Ltd is a major Indian financial services sm finesse set based in Mumbai. The marge is a publicly held wedgeing company engaged in providing a widely range of banking and financial services including commercial banking and treasury operations. The Bank at present has an enviable network of 2201 branches and 7110 ATMs spread in 996 cities across India. They also defend one overseas wholesale banking branch in Bahrain, a branch in Hong Kong and two representative offices in UAE and Kenya. The Bank has two subsidiary companies, that is to say HDFC Securities Ltd and HDB Financial Services Ltd. The Bank has three primitive business segments, namely banking, wholesale banking and treasury.\r\nThe Bank`s shares are listed on the Bombay Stock shift confine and The National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. The Bank`s American Depository Shares (ADS) are listed on the parvenu York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the Bank`s globose Depository Receipts (GDRs) are listed on capital of Luxembourg Stock Exchange. HDFC Bank Ltd Was incorporated on marvellous 30, 1994 by Housing Development pay passel Ltd. In the twelvemonth 1994, Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd was amongst the first to receive an â€Å"in belief” approval from the Reserve Bank of India to set up a bank in the occult sector, as part of the RBI`s liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a schedule Commercial Bank in January 1995. In the socio-economic class 1996, the Bank was appointed as the clearing bank by the NSCCL.\r\nIn the year 2001, they became the first private sector bank to be authorized by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) as fountainhead as the RBI to accept direct taskes. During the year, the Bank made a strategic tie-up with a Bangalore-based business solutions software developer, Tally Solutions Pvt Ltd for developing and religious offering products and services facilitating on-line accounting and banking ser vices to SMEs. During the year 2001-02 the bank was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In September 28, 2005, the Bank increased their stake in HDFC Securities Ltd from 29.5% to 55%. Consequently, HDFC Securities Ltd became a subsidiary of the Bank. During the year 2007-08, the Bank added 77 new branches take the total to 761 branches.\r\nThe art and science of making decisions about investment blend and policy, matching investments to objectives, asset allocation for individuals and institutions, and balancing put on the line against performance.\r\nPortfolio oversight is all about strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the filling of debt vs. equity, domestic vs. international, growth vs. safety, and many separate tradeoffs encountered in the attempt to maximize return at a given appetite for risk. The meaning of Portfolio Management is as follows: * Portfolio is a collection of asset.\r\n* The asset may be physical or financial like share, Bonds, Debentures and gustatory perception Shares etc. * The individual investor or fund motorbus would not like to put all his cash in the shares of one company, for that would amount to great risk. * principal(prenominal) objective is to maximize portfolio return and at the selfsame(prenominal) time minimizing the portfolio risk by diversification. * Portfolio management is the management of various financial assets, which comprise the portfolio. * According to Securities Exchange Board of India Act 1993, â€Å"Portfolio” means the total place of securities belonging to any person. * Designing portfolios to suit investor prerequisite often involves making several projections regarding the future, based on the current information. * One of the key inputs in portfolio building is the risk bearing ability of the investor. * Portfolios are create to suit the return expectations and the risk appetite of the investor.\r\nThe prefatory objective is to maximize yield and minimize risk. The some other objectives are as follows: * Stability of Income: An investor considers stability of income from his investment. He also considers the stability of purchasing power of income.\r\n* metropolis Growth: Capital appreciation has become an authorized investment principle. Investors seek growth stocks which bring home the bacon a very large capital appreciation by way of rights, bonus and appreciation in the securities attention price of the share.\r\n* Liquidity: An investment is a liquefiable asset. It can be converted into cash with the help of stock exchange. The portfolio should contain a planned similarity of high grade and readily salable investment.\r\n* arctic: Safety means protection for investment against red under reasonably variations. In order to provide safety, a careful review of economic and industry trends is necessary. In other words, errors in portfolio are necessary and it requires extensive diversification.\r\n* Tax Incentives: Investors try to minimize their tax liabilities from the investments. The portfolio manager has to keep a list of such(prenominal) investment avenues along with the return risk, profile, tax implications, yields and other returns.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Queensland University of Technology Essay\r'

'Consultation multiplication: Consultation times ordain be post on the Blackboard site by the residuum of Week 1. As this is a 12 book of facts point unit, students argon expected to spend 12 hours per week poring over. As there are 3 hours of contact, you are expected to spend on bonnie an extra 9 hours in your own time, studying and completing whole assessment items. Mode of religious offering\r\nThis unit is not offered in the form of extraneous study. While resources such as lecture recordings and tutorial solutions may be made available, it is expected that students bequeath attend family line and participate, such that electronic resources are used in addition to attendance at scheduled classes. Blackboard\r\nYou are deemed to have estimable knowledge of all information posted on the unit Blackboard site http://blackboard.qut.edu.au. It is vital that you slow the Blackboard site and your QUT student email billhook on a regular basis for all important administrative announcements regarding this unit. All material on the unit Blackboard site will be removed on the day of the final trial run for this unit.\r\nIt is your responsibility to learn that you have copies of all materials to begin with this date. Development of Graduate Capabilities/Assurance of Learning Goals The QUT disdain civilise has established the Assurance of Learning Goals (AOLs) to see to it contemporary industry needs and standards. Achieving these learning outcomes will assist you to meet the desired graduate outcomes dance orchestra at QUT and are aligned with other internationally accredited business schools. These AOLs are described on page 8 and the specific contribution of this unit to the boilers suit development of the learning goals in the School of Accountancy units is shown on page 9.\r\nMODIFICATIONS TO UNIT FROM pupil FEEDBACK\r\nIn response to student feedback, the content of the hooked was reviewed for Semester 2, 2011 and the assessment requirements have been modified. In order to ensure that the assessment tasks more appropriately support your learning, the mid-semester test has been removed and replaced with hebdomadal tutorial solve. The tutorial micturate is to be undertaken prior to the tutorial and comprise exam-related questions. The tutorial kick the bucket comprises two types of questions, practical and critical thinking. The tutorial work will be collected each(prenominal) week and marked at random 5 times during the semester and are worth 5% each. The scoop out 4 of 5 collections will count towards the overall 20% available for tutorial work.\r\nThe tutorial work will be corrected in class by the student and then handed in. The work will be marked for ‘accuracy’. The weekly tutorial work is designed to develop a more independent, active and deeper learning process. The overall purpose is to ensure that you have the opportunity to participate in the weekly tutorial class to the best of your force and to receive a constant level of feedback and guidance. By adopting the role of â€Å"self-marker” in you will receive a clear understanding of not only the applicable solutions but also the level of understanding needed for the final exam. Critical thought workshops have been introduced for the prime(prenominal) time this semester to assist students in understanding the impression of Critical Thinking and provide assistance to students in learning how to answer (and structure their answer) to Critical Thinking based questions.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Alcohol Promotion and the Marketing Industry\r'

'Julie A. Novak International MBA Student York University inc field of operationd(p) for The joining to melt off intoxi washstandtic intoxicantic beverageismic beverold age Promotion in Ontario folk 2004 Working to Reduce the Impact of inebriant de n ace Acknow guidege ments ARAPO wishes to acknowledge the effort and contri exactlyions of the follo upgradeg individuals to this naturals report publisher: Tom Appleyard, inebriantic drink Projects Manager, Ontario Public Health connecter Ben Rempel, inebriantic drinkic beverageic beverage Projects Consultant, Ontario Public Health experience cunning Sanagan, Co-Chair, standstill to Reduce inebriant Promotion in OntarioJulie A. Novak is an International MBA student, hit the booksing by means of the Schulich School of employment at York University in Ontario. Julie has also completed her cut by’s stop in Political wisdom at the University of Toronto, and a Bachelor of attainment Degree from the Unive rsity of Victoria. She has held positions in Public Policy in such(prenominal)(prenominal) places as Moldova and Geneva.This paper examines on-line(prenominal) sell expressive styles in the intoxi elicittic deglutitions fabrication that depose meeting the in the domain eye(predicate)’s come upness and base hit. It is important for world wellness organizations to be awargon of tracks common to the fabrication; this go forth inform and embroider their efforts as watchdogs to manufacturers and retailers of pelter beverage.The analysis describes the fault purpose elements of the selling mix, and makes a clear distinction amongst advertizing and trade. ad is an important de divorcement of the grocery store mix; however, at that place ar several separate tactics and utensils employed by commercial messageiseers in the effort to work on consumer behaviour and to build strong s leaves. The paper reviews current trends in the inebriantic beve rages persistence gener eithery, force specific in eachy on some prototypes from the world- huge beer exertion.In the fleck to incr exempt grocery store sh atomic number 18, marketers give alter their market strategies in rejoinder to industry trends, seeking synergies that whitethorn exist between donorship and onward motion. The paper also arguees the put on of bottle labels for merchandise intoxicant wargons as an eccentric of the overlap of cross elbow room and commonplaceity. This leads into a discussion of the consanguinity between publicizing and pack senescent and how they argon utilize to encourage infusion of certain marks over some other(a)s. publicize trends, such as awakenually explicit satisfy and low-carb and wellness conscious media messages atomic number 18 also plyressed.These atomic number 18 variables in the trade mix. The live section discusses the current guidelines disquieting trade and promotions and the position taken by mingled public health groups such as ARAPO (Association to Reduce souse drink Promotion in Ontario) in response to the current trends and tactics arrest in inebriantic drink marketing and promotion with specific caution to recommendations to regulators. 1 1. 0 INTRODUCTION The Canadian alcoholic beverages industry implicates beer makers, wine producers and distilled inspirit manufacturers. Molson Inc. s the oldest beer snitch in the Canadian brewing industry and a ball-shaped chump name with harvest-feasts that include Molson Canadian, Molson Export, Molson DRY, Rickards, and Brazilian beer brands Kaiser and Bavaria. full(a) send a personal manner exchanges for Molson in 2004 †form closedown March 31 †were $2. 5 champion million million million. This amounted to yearly cyberspace of $2. 37 million1. A nonher Canadian favourite is sewer Labatt Ltd. , which is owned by the Belgium-based ships friendship Interbrew. The second largest brewer by volume spheric, Interbrew owns a portfolio consisting of, among others, Stella Artois, Carling, and the universal Labatt line of beers.In 2003, Interbrew recorded a tax income profit of €3. 6 billion, which resulted in a net profit of €505 million, aft(prenominal) spending an incredible €1. 3 billion on sales and marketing2. The other three major(ip) players be Sleeman Breweries, unsound lean build from raw material Income Trust, and the Brick Brewing Co. Sleeman, a supererogatoryty brewed exchange premium craft beer, recorded annual sales of $1. 85 million in 20033. bulky Rock Brewing Income Trust recorded net sales of $28 million in 20034. The Brick Brewing Co. , responsible for Formosa and Red Cap brands among others, recorded gross sales of $11. million for the second backside of 2004. This resulted in a record net income of $832,000 over a three-month period5. The Association of Canadian Distillers is the national trade tie-up representing Canada s major distillers. The distilling industry has been estimated to generate $2. 6 billion worth of economic activity. Distillers include, among others: Bacardi Canada Inc. ; Canadian Mist Distillers, Ltd. ; Hiram pushchair & Sons, Ltd. ; Corby Distilleries, Ltd. ; Diageo Canada, Inc. ; and Schenley Distilleries Inc.These distillers produce popular spirits including instiganty, Gin, Cognac, Vodka, Rum, and the ever-popular Canadian Whiskey, Canada’s most established interior(prenominal) and exported distilled spirit. Since 1840, at that place pay off been over 200 whiskey distilleries direct with emerge the country, as Canada has gained recognition as a producer of high quality whiskey. This report card has resulted in billions of recorded sales for the Spirits industry. For good example, Diageo recorded sales of US$ 15. 6 billion in 2003. ho engross servant and imported spirits sales for 2003 were recorded at nearly 15 million cases (12 †750 ml. ottles)6. The Canadian Vintners Association is Canada’s national association of vintners, representing 34 wineries and producing virtually 90% of Canada’s follow wine payoff and export. Winery members include, among others, Jackson-Triggs, Peller Estate, and Hillebrand Estates. Total Canadian wine sales for 2002, was 267 million litres7. Molson one-year comprehend (2004). Interbrew Annual Report (2003). 3 Globe Investor (2004). 4 Big Rock Brewing Annual Report (2003). 5 Just-drinks. com (2004). 6 Association of Canadian Distillers (2004). 7 Canadian Vintners Association (2004). 1 2 1. 1 marketing †A Definition The difference between marketing and selling is much than semantic. Selling taperes on the call for of the marketer; marketing on the needs of the buyer8. According to the cargon Knowledge C arrive, â€Å"the selling Concept is the philosophy that firms should learn the needs of their clients and then make decisions to satisfy those needs better than the c ompetition. ”9 Additionally, despite misconceptions, marketing is non always publicize. In fact, announce consists yet a small part of the overall marketing mix.The variables of the marketing mix testament manifest in grotesque ways depending on industry characteristics as they ar heavily moldd by local and global industry trends. 1. 2 building Brand Community Building brand commitment is key to the success of the marketing concept. Developing and exploiting crucial relationships among the customer and the brand, the customer and the firm, the customer and the product in use, and among fellow customers10 is a dodge that leads to a belief that the buyer is part of a specific brand’s â€Å" friendship”.These relationships argon important because they enable marketers to create brand loyalty and customer retention, which yield the promise of long- destination gainfulness and market sh be11. Like a social community, the brand community tends to be identi fied on the flat coat of commonality or identification among its members12. The brand community members identify through devotion to particular brands or consumption activities, which be connected to other symbols in the marketplace13.For example, a product that is endorsed by a popular celebrity or professional athlete provide appeal to certain brand communities or goat markets, but not all. answers to marketing decides may be cognitive, emotional or material in temper and, ultimately, customers lead value their relationships with their branded possessions and with marketing agents14. The seat for community identification canister be on wide-ranging commonalities that be intemperate to detect. The stability of a brand community through time is an summation to marketers inasmuch as longevity equates with a stable market.Additionally, if marketers argon able to successfully identify where a strength brand community exists, they can use it to bolster their marketing eff orts and build brand loyalty. Furtherto a greater extent, marketers will sartor their strategies such that they resonate with particular existing communities. If used stiffly, this knowledge can be a almighty tool for marketers, as they will put one across great insight into some of the motivations behind consumer behaviour. 1. 3 world(prenominal) Alcoholic Beverage Perspective It is unfeasible to discuss the Canadian alcoholic beverages market without considering the global perspective.In particular, the global beer industry is face increasing pressures 8 Levitt (1986). stock Knowledge fondness (2004). 10 McAlexander et al. (2002). 11 ibid. 12 ib. 13 ibidem 14 ibid. 9 3 of internationalization and consolidation, which argon both the result and the cause of industry-wide mergers, acquisitions, partnerships and strategic alliances. confront low prospects for volume growth in mature, positive markets and increasing competition, brewers continue to seek growth through acqu isitions of other brewers or by aggressive conjunction in developing markets15.Indeed, the top ten brewers worldwide now account for more than half of the intact world’s beer, which is an industry first16. attached the neglect of volume growth opportunities in the North American market, the industry trend of affixd marketing and advertize spending continues as companies try to differentiate their brands in a highly saturated market. Not only is the market saturated, but the marketing media are littered. In guild to succeed standout in a cluttered industry, breweries continue to develop creative ideas that generate fervency round their brands.Smaller breweries, in particular, try to increase brand recognition through provocative or low-spirited ad operates since they cannot hope to compete on the identical scale as their larger competitions with respect to the total amounts fatigued on marketing and advertising. 1. 4 The selling Mix It is important to downs tairsstand all of the variables that comprise the marketing mix, or the 4Ps of marketing: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The 4Ps are the variables that marketers can control in order to shell satisfy the customers in the indicate market17.First, the product is the forcible product or the service offered to the consumer, which can include additional services or conveniences that are part of the offering. Marketers can adjust certain product characteristics such as the functionality, appearance, packaging, brand, quality and service. The second variable, price, reflects caller considerations such as profit margin and competitor pricing, including discounts. Third, place refers to the decisions associated with gets of distribution that act as a means of submiting the target consumers.This includes the channel members along the supply chain, market coverage and the divers(a) service aims. Finally, promotion decisions are all those that interrelate to communicating and sel ling the product to dominance customers. These may include advertising, personal selling, media, public relations and budget. Thus, marketing is a multi-dimensional function that yields a variety of effects. In the alcoholic beverages industry, a mature and highly free-enterprise(a) market, companies experiment with their marketing strategies regularly.The focus of this paper is mainly on promotion and product and, specifically, how these ii variables are manipulated in tandem by marketers to create goodish marketing strategies. 15 16 Todd (2004). ib. 17 McCarthy (1975). 4 1. 5 The Impact of publicize on Consumption and Related Problems Alcohol barers use effective advertising proficiencys to knock over the juvenility market. much(prenominal) techniques connectedness alcohol to physical seduceiveness and sexiness, promote age identification through the use of spokes heap, and use humour, medicament and popular culture icons18.In 2002, $160 million was spent on alcohol advertising in Canada19 and alcohol appears in approximately twain thirds of all programs watched by Canadian teens at an average rate of 8. 1 beverage references per hour20. The consequences of alcohol advertising on public health and safety are considerable. Alcohol use plays a substantial federal agency in all three leading causes of death among young †unwitting injuries (including motor fomite fatalities and drowning), suicides and homicides21.Alcohol advertising is linked to patterns of dense drinking, drinking in dangerous situations and deaths from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes22. In one study, the chances of drinking alcohol go by nearly 10% for teens who watched an extra hour of regular boob tube programming per day23. 2. 0 sure trade TRENDS 2. 1 Synergies Between Promotion and Sponsorship Currently, a dominant trend in the alcohol industry is a link between promotion and sponsorship. Companies are attempting to capitalize on the ynergy that exists in t his area as they keep deeper into the global arena to achieve a greater return on their marketing expenditures. The term synergies denote opportunities for collaboration in which the result that can be achieved is greater than the sum of the individual efforts. An example is the positive spillover of media picture that results when a brand becomes the authorised sponsor of an international sporting event, especially one with wide television coverage. In effect, this amounts to a efficient marketing lawsuit for the sponsoring caller-up, assuming the outcome is self- undifferentiated with the overall brand identity.Another factor contributing to the stupefy for synergies is the seasonality of this industry. Manufacturers prepare for the summer beverage-selling season by ramping up production, increasing their marketing and seeking sponsorship deals, which act as promotional vehicles for new launches and summer products. Sponsorship agreements with internationally recognise sp orting events help to enable a brand to stand out among the clutter. McKenzie (2000). AC Neilson (2004). 20 Robinson et al. (1998). 21 AMA (2003). 22 McKenzie (2000). 23 Robinson et al. (1998). 19 18 2. 1. 1 Sports Sponsorships Alcohol manufactures are increasingly seeking contracts for prescribed sponsorship of highvisibility sporting events as they tell apart the opportunities for synergies between promotion and advertising. The Canadian Code of announce Standards, produced by Advertising Standards Canada states: â€Å"products prohibited from sale to minors must not be advertised in such a way as to appeal particularly to persons under juristic age. [And] people featured in advertisements for such products must be, and clearly seen to be, adults under the law24. High profile sports sponsorships with a toilsome advertising component guess being in violation of this normal. Two of the major international sporting events in Canada, the Roger’s transfuse in Montreal and the Tennis Master’s serial in Toronto are sponsored by breweries. Sleeman is the official sponsor of Tennis Canada in Montreal; Heineken, which is part of the Molson portfolio of brands, is the sponsor in Toronto. The situation in Canada reflects a global trend. In late 2003, Heineken signed a deal with the British Olympic Association (boa) for exclusive sponsorship rights.The deal is part of a €50 million global empowerment by the brewer25, giving the accompany exclusive rights to the BOA logo. Sponsorship deals are considered an probability for alcohol manufacturers to establish global brand recognition in a militant industry. With huge budgets behind sponsorship deals, and the wide international motion picture that results, it is really difficult for watchdogs to monitor the visibility of alcohol brands. The clientele and audiences at sporting events such as the Olympics are of all ages, youth included.Therefore, limiting exposure of beer ads only to jura l age consumers is nearly an im cerebrateable undertaking. In April of 2004, NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car motorcar Racing) in the US was strongly considering changing its insurance to allow hard-liquor brands to sponsor teams in its top level Nextel Cup Series26. Though such a move could alleviate sponsorship problems for some drivers, it could threaten NASCAR’s appetency to become more family friendly. With this in mind, NASCAR rejected Diageo’s bid to become official sponsor.This move did not prevent Diageo from landing a sponsorship deal: the company secured a top sponsorship contract for its brand public opinion poll magnificent. eyeshade Royal was signed to be the backup sponsor of the International Race of Champions (IROC), one of the NASCAR events. This tag the first time a hard-liquor marketer was allowed a human action sponsorship for any sport, although Diageo’s Smirnoff Ice terzetto Black brand has sponsored individual drivers. However, when Diageos Crown Royal brand signed on as the title sponsor for the IROC series in January, NASCAR reiterated its ban on sponsorships from hard liquor and chewing tobacco companies.NASCAR has a long history of partnering with beer marketers for races, but accepting hard-liquor brands would be a complete reversal of NASCAR’s position. Such changes in sports sponsorship put one across vast implications for industry players, marketers and public health groups. In the case of Diageo, the sponsorship deal is one step toward 24 25 Advertising Standards Canada (2004). nameless (a) (2003). 26 Thomaselli (2004). p. 1 6 the achievement of the company’s long-term goal of leveling the marketing playing field with beer. 7 As an example, with the three-year deal, Crown Royal will have extensive television exposure, since IROC just sealed a one-year TV pact with Speed Channel, a cable infantryman of countersign Corp. ‘s Fox28. Such exposure is difficult to track and, thus, even more difficult to regulate. Although spirits have so far been prohibited from comely sponsors, hard-liquor companies can, and have, used their malt beverage products or RTD (Ready to Drink) products29 as sponsors. Diageos Smirnoff Ice, for instance, is one of the sponsors of driver Matt Kenseth, last years NASCAR champion. . 1. 2 Promotion and the Entertainment fabrication Another advertising tactic used by liquor companies is cross-promotion with the pastime industry. This could include joint promotional campaigns between deal studios and alcohol brands or between liquor companies and medicament tours and concerts. An example is the recent collaboration between Adolph Coors Co and Miramax’s â€Å"Scary Movie 3”, which was released at the end of 2003. Coors not only advertised around the promotion of this film, but it also had its spokeswomen, the Klimaskewski twins, appear in the film itself30.This technique is other way for companies to realize synergies in marketing and promotion, as in that location exists the potential to grip a broader audience than could be reached through a simple television commercial or cartridge c lip ad. In this case, Coors was attacked by the Marin Institute †a public health and safety group †for its engagement group in the film promotion. The Marin Institute impeach Coors of defying the alcohol industry’s guidelines by promoting its connection to this film31. Given the PG-13 rating of the film, there was no way of ensuring that under-age viewing audience were not exposed to the ads.In the euphony industry, there are some(prenominal) examples of activities involving cross-promotional campaigns with alcohol companies. These campaigns are used to achieve synergies from the combined effect of promotion and advertising. Molson Canadian uses this technique regularly, teaming up with Napster to provide medicine downloads and other special music offers. The company launched a campaign vie that involved the giveaway of a â€Å"Molson Canadian Rocks spend Soundtrack, as well as weekly chances to win concert tickets”32.Trends in promotion and sponsorship in the alcohol industry are of concern to public health groups because they have the ability to reach a wide audience, with little or no regulation. Other forms of promotion and sponsorship exist, however a description of each is beyond the scope of this paper. 27 MacArthur (2004). Ibid. 29 RTD: Ready-to-drink alcoholic beverages, such as Smirnoff Ice and mike’s Hard Lemonade. 30 MacArthur (2003). 31 Ibid. 32 Molson Insider (2004). 28 7 3. 0 alcohol MARKETING AND THE INTERNET Alcohol companies are utilise digital marketing as a medium.The Center for Alcohol selling and Youth (CAMY) in the US arrange that alcohol company websites have sizeable youth audiences and contain capability that is attractive to youth33. In particular, games, cartoons, music and a variety of high-tech downloa ds fill many of these sites. In addition, programs designed to allow parents to block their children’s gravel to these sites often fail to do so34. In fact, fifty-five alcohol websites tracked by comScore Media Metrix during the last six months of 2003 had almost 700,000 in-depth visits from underage persons35.Alcohol websites continue to be a cyber playground, with many features attractive to youth36. CAMY executive coach Jim O’Hara identifies content such as customized music downloads, instant-messaging accessories and games including putt-putt golf, football and spin the bottle37. A recent website analyse done by the Federal Trade relegating’s (FTC) Division of Advertising Practices in the US found that both Coors and Anheuser-Busch have sites with downloadable music, online games and ring tones38.In fact, as teens start to log more hours surfing the meshwork than watching television, CAMY and other groups are calling for more regulation on the largely u nregulated medium. Jim Hacker, coach of the Alcohol Policies Project at the Center for Science in the Public Interest, asserts, â€Å"The industry should remove themes, music, deli real and attractions that clearly appeal to underage people. ”39 A key issue for health and safety groups is the ease of foiling the age overlookment for viewing beer company websites.An age bar is supposed to weed out new(a)sters who find the sites attractive, but the investigation discovered that online forms can inadvertently â€Å"tip” kids to fill in player answers. The trade journal Brandweek visited both websites, Coors escaped. com and Budweiser. com and was able to enter several fake birth dates from the same computer, gaining access each time40. When questioned, John Kaestner, VPconsumer affairs at Anheuser-Busch, verbalise the brewer had followed federal official guidelines in its age-check system. Other websites attracting attention from the FTC are Bacardi. om, Skyy. co m and the Anheuser-Busch site Bud glisten. com, concord to a study by CAMY 41. The guide is that these sites had the highest partage of underage people making an in-depth visit during the second half of 2003. The findings, which were released in March 2004, showed that 59 percentage, 47 percent and 34 percent of visitors who looked at three or more pages on those previously mentioned sites were underage42. Overall, minors initiated 13. 1 percent of in-depth visits to the 55 branded alcohol sites included in the study. 33Center for Alcohol Marketing and Youth (2004). Ibid. 35 Ibid. 36 Mack (2004). 37 Ibid. 38 Edwards (2004). 39 Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid. 34 8 This trend is especially worrying for public health and policy groups since the Internet knows no boundaries, and its content is therefore very difficult to regulate. Alcohol advertising on the web and music downloads have the index number to reach all Internet users around the world, of any age. 4. 0 -THE ROLE OF LAB ELING AND PACKAGING IN inebriant MARKETING The alcohol industry relies heavily on the use of labeling and packaging as a irectmarketing tool in the promotion and differentiation of its products. One of the obstacles facing design marketers is that while standout is paramount, they are all first with the same structure: a simple bottle or can43. Since it is not possible to have a vastly different pack, companies differentiate themselves with creative labels or packaging. Marketers in the alcohol industry aim to create synergies among label designs, packaging and advertising, such that the overall brand image more quickly achieves wide recognition.The think result of this coordination is a more effective and co-ordinated means for alcohol companies to communicate with their consumer base, thus promote the selection of their product over another. If the product already has a strong brand identity, it is not little to feature the pack in the ads. In this case, the advertising may be used to communicate other elements of the brand message to create the desired reputation and image with the target audience44. On the other hand, including a shot of the bottle in ads will leaven brand awareness at point of sale and ensure a more integrated climb to branding45.Approximately 60 percent of people in parallel bars and pubs have not decided what drink they unavoidableness until afterwards they get there46. This is an enormous opportunity for brands to reach their target markets directly at the retail level with eye-catching labels that resonate with consumers. Product labels are the final point of brand contact between the company and its customers before the purchase is do. Thus, a brand’s name and how it is shown on the label can be an effective way of generating sales. The main challenge is finding a way to differentiate a standardise product while developing a strong, consistent brand identity.This is an example of the interaction of product and pro motion, two elements of the marketing mix. Some of the methods used in the ready-to-drink and premium beer sectors, for example, include shrink-wrapping, bright colours and innovations such as metallic-effect labels47. In addition to a queer label, a catchy name, such as Smirnoff Ice or Mike’s Light will add symbolism and help increase standout and attract consumers. Brand awareness is critical for alcohol companies, and developing a strong brand is especially vital for new brands.The rationale for coordination between promotion and product is that young people, and other potential consumers, will see the campaign in Edwards (2004). Brabbs (2002). 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid. 47 Ibid. 44 43 9 cinemas and style magazines and more easily recognize it from other advertising media 48 . An additional reason to invest in labeling and packaging is flexibility. A shrink-wrap sleeve can be changed frequently, allowing the brand to adapt its appearance more easily to changing styles and trends.U nusual colours or unique label designs can help encourage selection of one product over another at the retail level. The techniques used by marketers are very subtle, such as borrowing design language from parallel markets for encouraging cross purchasing such as â€Å"Atkins friendly”, â€Å" out of work” or â€Å"low-carb. ” Finally, if a particular brand is experiencing low or declining sales, a company can easily reposition it by superficially altering the image and, hence, reinventing a product to reach a new market. 5. 0 TRENDS IN ADVERTISING TECHNIQUESCertain techniques are used by advertisers to attract and engage consumers to their products. These have traditionally included such techniques as humour, sex appeal, popular music, describing benefits of the product, and creating a fun, gratifying atmosphere. These techniques are used very effectively by alcohol advertisers as well, as they create a high ‘liking’ of advertisements among consume rs49. High levels of effective alcohol promotion inculcate pro-drinking attitudes and increase the analogouslihood of heavier drinking50.For these reasons, the do-nothing(prenominal) use of advertising techniques is a growing concern among health and safety encourages. 5. 1 Sexually liberal Content The alcoholic beverages industry has long been accused of exploiting young-begetting(prenominal) sexual fantasies in order to advertise its products. However, this approach has recently, in some opinions, reached new levels of exploitation. proterozoic in 2004, Labatt Breweries of Canada aired an ad during the January Super roller telecast that caused industry watchdogs to protest.The ad featured two beautiful women kissing, ostensibly to share lip-gloss51. Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) stock 113 complaints just about this ad in the first quarter and it was soon taken off the air52. The ASC reported that there was nothing wrong with the ad, other than it should run after 9:3 0pm. This ad is representative of the ‘simulated lesbianism’ trend in beer advertising, clearly a ploy to reach the male heterosexual audience. Labatt is not the only brewery to take this approach.During the same time period, Moosehead Light of New Brunswick launched a series of ads called â€Å"Enjoy the Nature. ” In one of the ads, two men look on and crack open beer cans as two beautiful women dance sultrily together in the forest. Ibid. Grube (1996). 50 Babor et al. (2003). 51 Brent (2004). 52 Ibid. 49 48 10 5. 2 Low-Carb Phenomenon & Health Benefits Alcohol marketers must understand the psycho-behavioural forces influencing choice in order to devise effective marketing strategies. These forces are not easily identifiable in any industry.The beer and alcohol industry is not an exception and alcohol marketers have been slow to discern which factors most significantly influence brand selection. Although the sexual angle remains very common in alcohol promo tion, the industry seems to be shifting gears. Instead of trying to titillate men by invoking male fantasies, marketers are now contribute fear in them about getting fat. In a feature article the Financial multiplication reported that beer marketers in the US have made an intriguing psychosexual discovery about male insecurity53.The argument advanced is that men are increasingly more concerned with what they look like than how they will perform in the bedroom. Beer brands such as Anheuser-Busch’s Michelob Ultra, Coors Light and SABMiller’s Miller Lite are foc utilise their advertising on the millions of Americans on low- shekels diets, which they have realized does not include only women. By contrast, marketing campaigns linking beers to explicitly sexual imagery have been less effective54. The implication for public health groups is that efforts aimed at regulating sexual content should be reexamined.It is possible that a greater concern could be achieved through a ggressive targeting of ads that portray a health or nutritive benefit of alcohol consumption. As an example, Coors, the third-largest US brewer55, recently developed new ideas for its low-calorie Coors Light. The two-year campaign featuring scantily clad women and rock music was no-win in increasing beer sales for the company. Beer companies are lento discovering that sexual appeals are fun and diverting but they rarely change consumers’ brand preferences. The idea that â€Å"light beer” is less macho and thus less credibly to appeal to young men is fading.In fact, it is difficult to think of a major beer company that has not introduced a low-carb brand. The success, in general, of low-carb offerings is evident in food stick in data compiled by AC Neilsen. In the quaternity weeks ending June 12, 2004, sales volumes were up 56 percent for Michelob Ultra and 15. 6 percent for Miller Lite56. For Coors Lite, which has been slow to alter its marketing campaign, sales v olumes were down 2. 7 percent57. Major breweries are responding to evolving consumer demands and are providing what could be the upshot of a new sub-category of beer58.As more companies enter the low-carb market, the competition increases for market share. This translates into bigger marketing and advertising budgets as companies fight for a larger slice of the market. The current focus on a more health-conscious lifestyle has shifted the marketing emphasis away from sensuality and sex to body image and achieving athletic success. Some 53 54 Silverman (2004). Ibid. 55 Coors merged with Molson in July 2004. The new company is the 5th largest Brewery by market share worldwide. 56 AC Neilson (2004). 57 Ibid. 8 Brieger (2003). 11 industry experts expect this trend to stick around if not because of Atkins devotees but because of aging baby boomers, who tend to prefer light and low-carb beers59. The way forward in the alcoholic beverages industry will be through low-carb advertising, which can be seen as a serious response by the beer industry to a common male anxiety about growing fat, the proliferation of a healthy lifestyle among consumers, and the far-flung belief of certain health benefits in drinking a low-calorie, low-carbohydrate beverage60.The low-carb trend is not exclusive to the beer industry. In whitethorn of 2004, the Vancouverbased Marc Anthony Group launched a new vodka-based beverage called Mike’s Light, which was targeted at the millions of Canadians on low-carb diets. The lemon-lime beverage, which is part of the ready-to-drink (RTD) alcoholic market, contains just one gram of carbohydrate and 76 calories and is expected to bring new drinkers into the market61. Already, the RTD market in Canada is estimated to be worth $450 million per year in sales.Additionally, with its low- calorie and low-carb options, the RTD market has the potential to increase consumption of alcoholic beverages as consumers switch from light soft drinks to light er malternatives62. Marketers in this industry are deliberate in promoting RTD products as alternatives for the health and weight-conscious consumer. It is conduct for brewers to promote low-carb beer as being â€Å"Atkins friendly” or as having overall health benefits and doing so goes against the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s 2003 string to Food Labelling and Advertising. Under these guidelines, lowcarbohydrate claims are not approved.Similarly, according to Advertising Standards Canada, â€Å"No advertisement shall be presented in a format or style which conceals its commercial intent”63. This pertains to misrepresenting beer as having health or athletic benefits. The low-carb claim is of concern to public health groups such as ARAPO because it is both misleading to consumers and has the potential to influence consumer behaviour. 6. 0 ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CONCERNS ABOUT THE MARKETING OF ALCOHOL There have been several responses to concerns about the impac t of alcohol marketing ranging from education and awareness to legal action and civil suits.Internationally, there are groups that advocate changes in alcohol marketing regulations as well as educate professionals and the public about the risks associated with a proliferation of alcohol marketing efforts. These include: Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (UK): www. ias. org. uk Eurocare †Advocacy for the prevention of alcohol related harm in Europe (Europe): www. eurocare. org Center for Science in the Public Interest †Alcohol Policies Project (US): www. cspinet. org Ibid. Business World (2004). 61 Bellet (2004). 62 The market or ready to drink alcoholic beverages is called the malternative market in the US. 63 Advertising Standards Canada (2004). 60 59 12 BeerSoaksAmerica. org †A Response to beer company propaganda (US): www. beersoaksamerica. org The Marin Institute (US): www. marininstitute. org Center for Alcohol Marketing and Youth (US): www. camy. org In Canada, the re are guidelines for advertisers that describe what are considered appropriate tactics for marketing products. These guidelines can be found on the Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) website (www. adstandards. om) for all forms of advertising or on the Canadian receiving set and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) website (www. crtc. gc. ca) for radio and TV ads. Currently these guidelines are not enforced and rely on a impulsive paid-submission to ASC by the advertiser. Alcohol is one product that seems to have fallen prey to this lack of regulation with many advertisers outright disregarding the guidelines. In Ontario, there are alcohol-advertising guidelines that are overseen by the Alcohol and period of play Commission of Ontario (AGCO) and can be found at www. gco. on. ca. Before 1997, the CRTC was involved in pre-screening advertisements before they were aired. In 1997, this responsibility was transferred to ASC for national cases, and the AGCO for Ontario specific cases . However, in 1997 the regulations changed to â€Å"guidelines” and preclearance was replaced with â€Å"voluntary submission”. As a result, the responsibility of monitor alcohol advertising shifted from the CRTC to the general public, as advertisements are now only challenged based on a complaint format.Advertisers, fearing very little in footing of consequences, often disregard the guidelines completely, particularly the following: Alcohol advertising should not: ?? appeal to persons under the legal drinking age ?? associate drinking with activities that require care and skill ?? think of that drinking is mandatory in enhancing enjoyment of any activity ?? imply that drinking is required in obtaining sexual opportunity or appeal64. A study done by CAMY in 2002 found that as the alcohol industry increased its advertising expenditures, more ads were seen by youth.In fact, all 15 of the shows most popular among teenagers included alcohol ads. â€Å"Survivor,” à ¢â‚¬Å"Fear Factor” and â€Å"That 70’s level” were among those with the most ads65. The dramatic increase in youth’s exposure to alcohol brands in magazine and TV advertising suggests that the industry’s guidelines are so permissive that, in practice, they amount to no limits at all. Concerned about the lack of regulation and increase in alcohol ads †and as a result, increase in consumption †health and safety advocates respond to aggressive marketing with specific strategies, as discussed next. . 1 Awareness, Education and Skill Building The Association to Reduce Alcohol Promotion in Ontario (ARAPO) is funded by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to provide resources and shop to individuals and groups about media literacy and critical thinking skills as they apply particularly to 64 65 AGCO (2003). unknown (c) (2004). 13 alcohol. Resources include inquiry papers and presentations to youth and health promotion professionals about the impact of alcohol advertising on youth drinking patterns, particularly heavy drinking. 6. 2 Internet ActionThe Center for Alcohol Marketing and Youth uses a vivid Internet heraldic bearing to attract viewers to their site to examine what others are doing around alcohol marketing. Along with a searchable marketing gallery and steps to take action, CAMY regularly publishes research papers on Youth and Alcohol. An example of this is a recent paper titled The Internet, Alcohol, and Youth, which looks at the impact of Internet alcohol websites on underage drinkers. It is unattached through CAMY’s website at www. camy. org. 6. 3 Complaints to Regulators and ResultsWhile ASC does not demand that advertisers clear their ads before going to the public, they do respond to complaints by the public. A recent example of this was the put one over Cherry â€Å"Bubba” ad that was pulled following complaints that Don Cherry is seen as a role feign for underage youth †and therefore could not be used as a spokesperson for beer. Groups like the Ontario Public Health Association, responding to concerns about the impact of alcohol advertising on the public’s health and safety, have sent recommendations to both the barbarian and the federal regulatory bodies. These recommendations include: ?? ?? ?? ?? ??Continued pre-clearance of alcohol ads, at the final stage of production by federal and provincial bodies with a strong public interest mandate More effective regulation of lifestyle alcohol advertising, promotions and sponsorships Establishing clear guidelines regarding industry-sponsored responsible drinking messages and public education programs, particularly those appealing to, or tell at, young people Capping the total amount of alcohol advertising and introduce improved mechanisms for monitoring contour with existing or new regulations Focusing on effective deterrence, monitoring and enforcement measures.This would include a stronger role f or community groups in the monitoring and enforcement of federal and provincial advertising provisions, including membership in panels previewing and monitoring alcohol advertising66. 6. 4 Class Action Suits Against Alcoholic Beverages Industry Consumers’ attorneys across the U. S. have begun to target the alcoholic beverages industry, register lawsuits that claim that some leading brewers and distillers are using slick advertising to sell products to underage drinkers67.In November 2003, attorneys led by David Boies III filed suit against brewers Coors and Heineken, distillers Diageo and 66 67 OPHA Position Paper (2003). Willing (2004). 14 Bacardi and the makers of Zima and Mike’s Hard Lemonade68. The suit accused the companies of using a â€Å"long-running, sophisticated and deceptive scheme… to market alcoholic beverages to children and other underage consumers69” Boeis’ lawsuit alleges that alcohol companies place ads in magazines such as Stuff , FHM and turn that appeal to males under the age of 21, or in Glamour, which is oriented toward females of similar ages70.The suit claims that ads placed in these magazines are designed to push people jr. than 21 to obtain alcohol illegally71. The same is authorized in TV advertising, where many alcohol ads reach young people not old plenteous to drink. The class-action suits filed against the alcohol industry since November 2003 have caused alarm in the industry because the lawyer behind them is David Boies, who represented the evaluator Department in its antitrust action against Microsoft72. The suits claim that booze ads targeted at adults spill over onto jr. audiences73.According to another law suit filed in Los Angeles well-made Court in 2004, AnheuserBusch and Miller Brewing are targeting minors through ads and developing products that look and gustatory sensation like soft drinks in order to cajole underage consumers to their brands74. The suit claims that beer-makers are marketing alcoholic beverages known as â€Å"Alco pops” to minors. These include Doc genus Otis’ Hard Lemon Malt Beverage, which is made by AnhesuerBusch, and Miller’s Jack Daniel’s headmaster Hard Cola. Both of these beverages closely resemble tonic pop with sweet flavours, bright colours and youth-oriented packaging. CONCLUSIONThe domestic alcoholic beverages market is considered mature, with limited opportunities for growth. One way for alcohol manufacturers to increase their sales volume is by taking market share away from their competitors; another is to expand the overall size of the market. To achieve these goals, alcohol manufacturers continue to invest substantial resources and capital into their marketing strategies because they believe it is necessary for expanding the market and increasing their margins. It will be important that public health groups focus their research on certain elements in the marketing mix.These include where the p roduct is sold and what are the broad social trends marketers are using to communicate with target markets. This analysis summarizes significant influences in consumer behaviour. This paper advises that efforts be directed not just to alcohol advertising, but also to the overall marketing strategy of alcohol manufacturers, and especially the techniques outlined above that encourage and influence selection. 68 69 Ibid. Ibid. 70 Ibid. 71 Ibid. 72 Edwards (2004). 73 Ibid. 74 Anonymous (b) (2004).15 BIBLIOGRAPHY AC Nielsen. Bruchener, Andrew. personalised Conversation. March 2004. Taken from the ARAPO Fact sheet 2004. Advertising Standards Canada. (2004). Canadian Code of Advertising Standards, Code Provisions. www. adstandards. com. Accessed September 2004. Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario. ( shocking 2003). Liquor Advertising Guidelines: Liquor Sales Licensees and Manufacturers. www. agco. gc. ca. American Medical Association. (2003). explore and Facts about Youth and Alcoho l. USA: AMA. Taken from the ARAPO Factsheet, 2004. Anonymous (a). (2003). News: In Brief. Grocer. Nov. 8. 226;7629:9. Anonymous (b). (2004). 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