Saturday, January 26, 2019
Branches of Philosophy Essay
In order to narrow the aims of discussion ism was depleted into break upes. Traditionally philosophy has been broken into four main branches however we would identical to add a fifth branch in our text -Epistemology Epistemology, from the genuine words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge and love. -Metaphysics Metaphysics (derived from the classic words ta meta ta physika biblia) beggarlying the admit that follows the physics book.It was the way students referred to a specific book in the whole caboodle of Aristotle, and it was a book on First philosophical system. (The assumption that the word means beyond physics is misleading) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy interested with the strike of first principles and existenceness (ontology). In other words, Metaphysics is the ask of the most general aspects of touchableity, such as substance, identity, the nature of the m ind, and free will. In other way is a study of nature and the nature of the world in which man lives -Logic Logic (from mere Greek ?????(logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, just coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). however the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same to advance an account of well-grounded and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish good from gravid arguments. -Ethics Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. Other Branches doctrine of Education Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the decline way to educate a person. unadulterated toys include Platos Republic , Lockes Thoughts Concerning Education, and Rousseaus Emile. Philosophy of HistoryFairly minor branch (not as minor as education), although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i. e.the population and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end? Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx.Classic works include Vicos New Science, and Hegel and Marxs works. Philosophy of Language antediluvian branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century infra Wittgenstein. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Classic works include Platos Cratylus, Lockes Essay, and Wittgensteins Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Philosophy of rectitude Also called Jurisprudence.Study of law attempting to discern what the best laws might be, how laws came into being in the first place, attempting to delimit human laws from natural laws, whether we should always practise the law, and so on. Law isnt often directly dealt with by philosophers, but much of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it. Philosophy of Mathematics Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols (numbers, triangle, operands) of mathematics that we exercise to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on.Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field. Philosophy of Mind Study of the mind, attempting to ascertain exactly what the mind is, how it interacts with our body, do other minds exist, how does it work, and so on. Probably the most popular branch of philosophy right now, it has expanded to include issues of AI. Classic works include Platos Republic and Wittgensteins Philosophical Investigations, although either major philosopher has had so me purview at least on what the mind is and how it works. Philosophy of Politics tight related to ethics, this is a study of government and nations, particularlyhow they came somewhat, what makes good governments, what obligations citizens thrust towards their government, and so on. Classic works include Platos Republic, Hobbes Leviathan, Lockes ii Treatises, and J. S. Mills On Liberty. Philosophy of Religion Theology is concerned with the study of God, recommending the best phantasmal practises, how our religion should shape our life, and so on. Philosophy of religion is concerned with much the same issues, but where Theology expends religious works, like the Bible, as its authority, philosophy likes to use reason as the ultimate authority.Philosophy of Science Study of science concerned with whether scientific knowledge locoweed be said to be certain, how we obtain it, can science really explain everything, does causation really exist, can every event in the universe be de scribed in cost of physics and so on. Also popular in recent times, classic works include Humes Treatise on Human Nature, Kripkes assigning and Necessity, Kuhns Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Empiricism is a philosophical image swinishd on the idea that all reliable knowledge about the world is gained in the process of experience.Famous empiricists were Hume, Locke and Berkley, basing themselves on ideas already postulated by Aristotle, that we are born with the Tabula Rasa which receives throughout our lives information on which it can base all thinking and knowing. The movement of empiricism was in part a countermovement to what Descartes and Spinoza had proposed as rationalism. Knowledge derived from experience is called a posteriori. - Doing Philosophy umpteen fields can be studied and learned without ever rattling working with the tools in the field.For instance, chemistry can be learned in depth without ever picking up a test tube-shaped structure or mixing ionic compounds. Philosophy, however, is more about the methodology tail deriving answers than it is about the answers themselves. As such, students studying philosophy must use the methodology of philosophy on the philosophy they are learning as they are learning it. Doing philosophy involves asking the right questions, critically examining the work of previous philosophers, truly understanding the works and the reasoning behind the works, and mayhap building on the works of previous philosophers by expanding or test this methodology.