Monday, March 11, 2019

Contributions and Drawbacks of Marxism

Contributions and Drawbacks of Marxism Marxism is a theoretical system that created by Marx and Engels establish on labor movements in the 19th century. Marxism was written upon a materialist interpretation of history. The Marxist theoretical system consists of three parts Marxist philosophy, Marxist semipolitical economy and scientific socialism, which were created on the basis of the German classical philosophy, the British classical political economy and French utopian collectivised bring respectively.In their writing the two most important terms are left and communist. When reading them, it is al commissions important to know what the writer fashion by them. For Marx socialism was the to a large(p)er extent comprehensive term communism was an mod stage of socialism. Socialism would prepare the way by nationalizing the means of product (factories, removedms, mines, transportation, etc. ) and putting them under the control of those he put oned as the fix producers of w ealth the proles.He viewed political equality and freedom as incomplete (or up to now illusory) without economic equality. Therefore this redistribution of economic effect was aimed at extending democracy far beyond the limits envisioned by earlier democratic revolutions. Social run same(p) health, education, and housing would be provided free, but flock would still be paid wages according to their work. When all nations had developed socialist economies, they would perplex to evolve into an international communist society.The vision of communism was in truth alike(p) to that of anarchism a stateless society in which central government had shrivel away, local, ground-up control of all affairs by strictly democratic processes based at the place of work, abolition of the foodstuff system (no money, no purchasing and selling) and its replacement by a system according to which people would voluntarily work for the common good to the extent they were able under the discernmen t that they could receive whatever they contracted for free (from to each one according to his ability, to each according to his needs).National boundaries and governments having been eliminated, war would cease. Since Marx published the Communist Manifesto in1848, the touchstone of the communist was high erected, from atomic number 63 to the Americas, Asia, hundreds of millions of people struggled to achieve this beautiful ideal. mountains enthusiasm motleyd from faith to practical action. Communist revolution had go along for more than a century and had significant impact on the adult males modern history 15 socialist countries were born, two global camps were formed and the conflict of assorted ideological forms evolved into conflict of international relations.After valet War II, socialist practice developed from one country into multi countries. The administration of the socialist camp ended the dominance of swellism. However, after nearly fractional centurys tuiti on, the Soviet model of socialism did not estimable demonstrate its superiority. They became rigid, dogmatic and stagnated. At the same time, capitalist forces gathered unitedly to against the socialist countries, and launched the peaceful evolution invention.Through the economic warfare, political warfare and the husbandry wars, finally in the 90s, the Soviet coupling collapsed and majority of Eastern European Socialist Countries changed to capitalist. Since then the international communist movement entered into a bump stage. There is always a question been asked if the socialist system is more superior than capitalism system, why most socialist countries failed and the remaining countries harbourt catch up with capitalist country?Because the development of socialist countries and that of capitalist countries lack a comparable basis First, they beat disparate surviveing points of economic development. Most socialist countries originally are feudal, colonial or semi-colo nial countries. They dont have any accumulated capital and wealthy like capitalist countries do. Under the control and plunder of occidental countries for decades, they barely have anything left. The difference surrounded by the two kinds of countries is significant. Second, they use different means of economic development.The history of capitalism is a history of bloody(a) fortune. As Marx said, capitalist labor process is the process of exploitation. Even today, with the betterment of technology and dominant of capital, they are still doing unequal exchange with ontogenesis countries, which helps them to grab wealth. notwithstanding the development of socialist countries mainly relies on peoples hard working. Third, they have different lengths of the economic development. From the establishment of the early socialist countries, scarce 80 years has past. Most of the socialist countries only have a history of forty or fifty years.They are still in the early stage of developm ent, their economic, political and social operational mechanisms havent been climby developed. And they are still on their way searching for proper methods for improvement. But capitalism has three hundred and lux years of history. It has accumulated a solid capital foundation and mystifying experience. Even so, among the capitalist countries, only around twenty of them are in the category of developed countries. Especially for those newly independent countries in the twentieth century who use capitalist system, none of them is in the rich friendship.Fourth, the development environment is different. From the establishment of the first socialist state, the worlds capitalist countries start to apply economic blockade, military siege and dismantle the armed aggression, the development environment for socialist countries is very dangerous. However, when the capitalist start developing, the old feudal system are almost collapse exhaustively from a global perspective. The internatio nal environment for the development of capitalism is very favorable. From the reasons above, I think it is not fair to compare the development take aim of socialist countries and capitalist countries.Even socialism did not success in a global point of view, it should be noted some of them have had great achievement. Before the collapse, the Soviet Union maintained an average industrial production growth rate of 21% from 1928 to 1940, ranking first in Europe and second in the world. And they completed in twelve years what capitalist countries achieved in 100 years. From 1951 to 1980, the Soviet major economic indicators are1 to 2 times higher than the U. S. In 1950, the Soviet industrial output is less than 30% of U. S. s industrial output, while in 1980 it reached 80%.In addition, the Soviet Union has significant achievement in science and technology, education, culture, military and many new(prenominal) fields. From the development of the Soviet Union, we can see the socialism h as certain kinds of advantages. We should in any case notice that the eighty years of socialist development history has a huge and far-reaching impact on the human social history. The establishment and development of socialism, breaks the operation system of colonialism and imperialism, propels the international political and economic order to a more equal and reasonable direction.The socialism analysis of the conflict between productive forces and production relations also helps with the improvement of the capitalist system. So socialism is conducive to the common progress of human society. But like other theories, Marxism, by the limitations of the era, has a series of shortcomings The class struggle theory. It is unprovoked for the dogmatists and violence advocates to take advantage of. Some people exaggerate the power of class struggle. They do not realize the probability of class change (proletariat to propertied class) and the class cooperation, so it can lead to widespread violence, legalized terrorist act easily.The proletarian dictatorship theory. The starting point of protecting people is good. But if the bad guys control the government, they may suppress people and dissent in the name of proletariat comrades. The theory of surplus value. Marx thinks, in a market economy, the exploitation of surplus value is from production. Surplus value is the value worker created minus the employment expense of that labor. Although this theory of exploitation has a compulsive side in recognition of exploitation, its bias and extreme part is obvious. Marxs geological fault is that he ignores capitalists anxiety of complex operation and the business risk they bear.Capitalists income should take on their general labor income (he works as a worker), complex management income (he conducts the operation and management, decision-making and other complex activities), capital income (he puts in capital), the risk income (the convention of market economy is the risk s and benefits equals he bears the investment risk, so he should have a higher income). Moreover, Marx does not realize that in the old socialist society, because of high concentration of power in planned economy, some problems ordain be created corruption, plunder of resources and people is a more serious exploitation. The plan economy theory.Marx negates the market economy, advocating elimination of private ownership and replace with full ownership. He promotes the idea of distribute according to the work contributed. He advances eliminating good and currency and replacing them with a comprehensive economic plan, distributing consumer goods by needs. Moreover, Marx states that full ownership go away become state ownership, the planned economy will be under the control of government, and distribution by work is very by the length working time. Those policies will certainly leads to unclear property rights, irresponsibility and egalitarianism.There will be no competition and pe ople will have no incentive to work. Some other problems also need our attention Is public ownership really efficient? Will egalitarian distribution inhibit creativity? Will planned economic encourage bureaucracy, and lead to laziness and waste? And so on. Sources http//www. douban. com/group/topic/4691689/ http//baike. baidu. com/view/680726. htm http//baike. baidu. com/view/8059. htm http//public. wsu. edu/brians/hum_303/manifesto. html http//wenda. tianya. cn/wenda/thread? tid=0aa8581c30d4c1eahl=vbgood http//www. marxists. org/archive/bukharin/works/1933/ teaching method/intro. htm

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