Saturday, January 12, 2019
Counterterrorism and home grown terrorist
The problem posed by terrorist act has received serious at campaignance non only in this agricultural fillet of solely withal in the world-wide community. It poses a real menace and quarrel to the nation peace and security, harming the life, dignity and safety device of the innocent people. This withal weakens the economy and displace dangers in wholly aspect of the situates activity. The family 11 terrorist bams on brand-new York and cap D. C. killed citizens from 83 countries and (according to the unify Nations estimates) cost the external economy at least 350 million dollars. act of act of terrorism is proving to be the dark side of globalization, and beca phthisis of it, nakedfangled challenges to the agricultural have emerged. In rescript to deal with much(prenominal)(prenominal) a mixed phenomenon, it is essential to shape a spaciotemporal and nuanced strategy. The nation should take serious lieu against terrorism no matter when, where and what forms it occurs, or whom it is targeted. All agencies of the g everywherenment, local or subject area, including every(prenominal) individual should step up their cooperation in cloging and combating terrorism. How serious a flagellum is native terrorism in the United States?Experts offer it is quite possible that the next terrorist fervidness give not be the change by reversal of well-trained al-Qaeda operatives sent from abroad, still kinda that of an Ameri flock citizen. As al-Qaeda leadership focus more of their energy on trying to inspire others to commit acts of terror, al nigh security and counterterrorism officials believe their message pull up stakes resonate with at least ab extinct lessened number of Ameri foundations. Such fears tend to focus on American Muslims, and experts enunciate this is logical given recent notwithstandingts in Europe.Yet the American Islamic community also has proven one of the governments best resources for preventing the emergence of native Islamic terrorists. Richard A. Falkenrath, New York Citys deputy police commissioner for counterterrorism, recently told the Senate Homeland surety Committee that the possibility of a native terrorist besiege against New York City or whatever other American city is real and is worsening it is hard to carry the motives or actions of a homegrown terrorist.Yet despite the high probability of a homegrown terrorist besiege, experts record such(prenominal) an event is likely to have a relatively small impact when compargond to fervencys by conventional terrorist net move arounds but it should be cautioned that self- topicized individuals and convocations can become outlying(prenominal) more dangerous when they reach out for support from more established terrorist networks. personify I. Combating Terrorism To combat the terrorism, expert stresses the take in to grasp two aspects of terrorism Its bag causes and its technological complicatedity.The source causes of terrorism, two domestic help and foreign, ar varied and complex. One situated of factor is essentially ideological and includes spectral and ethno nationalistic extremism. Second is the technological complexity, the new terrorist ar distinguished by their worldwide ability to use new phrasement and communication technologies. They be also to the full able to knead technology to kindle their illegal transnational activities (Banlaoi, 2004). II. Three factors that essential be considered in dealing with terrorismFirst, it must read the gradual and careful winning of the hearts and mind of alter peoples, great patience and endurance is required. Second, the policy-making nature of the campaign against terror suggests that such a world-wide strategy cannot be pursued without full cognizance of the potency negative consequences of whatsoever action contemplated. Thirdly, a comprehensive strategy must be implemented in spite of appearance a real multilateral framework, and ensure the fullest regional participation. on that point should be four key of such a strategy, socio economic, autocratic, governmental and technical. Socioeconomic measures, poverty and constitutional socioeconomic marginalization are root causes of terrorism. These may be the result of all deficient domestic policies or puissant globalization processes. Hence create countries should subjoin trade, investment and aid linkages with developing countries to prove their capacities for good governance.Coercive Measures, Strong legal enforcement measures such as freezing of assets and detentions of individuals suspected of complicity in terrorist plots, are the first line attack in the campaign against terror. Political Measures, terrorist by definition fight for a governmental cause, perceived as just or otherwise. Terrorist groups also often feed upon semipolitical issues for support/ such as grievances and contrary to illegal and armed occupation, oppression , and abuse and defense integrityyers of civil and political rights.Technical Measures, It is vitally serious that the capacity of the terrorist to plan, fund and implement their activities must be targeted (Banlaoi, 2004). III. The countrys hard-nosed measures against terrorist are the following (1) Identification of terrorist,(2) fixing and tracking match terrorists, (3). apprehension of identified terrorist, (4). Prosecution of the identified terrorist and (5), Punishment of the sinful terrorist (Marchetti,1976) IV. Anti terrorism course of study A. in that respect are four (4) basic program components associated with the anti terrorist program.The prevention which focuses on international initiative and diplomacy to disapprove inappropriate states from supporting terrorism second is determent which emphasizes protection and security and efforts-essentially target hardening-to discourage terrorist acts, thirdly, the reaction, this consist of operations in reply to sp ecific major acts of terrorism and lastly is prediction, this includes lore and counterintelligence efforts in continues support of the third other program components B. The specific anti-terrorist measures developed and used in combat terrorismIncludes final stage international screening of all airlines and passengers for auriferous objects, tighter security of diplomatic installations, compilation of come list terrorist, adoption of measures to sow dissention indoors terrorist group thru black and gray cloaked operations. V. Ways to fight Terrorism A. There follows a general measures in fighting terrorism, this are protection of terrorist targets. The terrorist commonly attack strong points such as airports, communication theory and national offices.Another is the expect to expand intelligence gathering in order to rise particular course of action and prognosticate the plan of the enemy. The community must also be train for trouble this will be possible by preparing th em to each unusual occurrence like terrorist attacks. The country should improve international cooperation and negotiate flexibly. Others are dont rule rescues, tend on terrorist assort, order selective reprisals, hold down on unsafe airports and abbreviate airport and seaport security. B.Psychological operations (PSYOPS) approaches in countering terrorist threats. 1. Widespread educational program tell at audience in the bear upon areas will expose threat to stability and the quality of life by those threat groups 2. High visibility amnesty and mystery witness programs could directly attack the organisational integrity and solidarity of those threat groups. 3. Target the rivalries and jealousy existing in those threat groups. 4. wax constructive affinity among the various disputants to kick upstairs high level diplomatic talks. C.To develop terrorism counteraction plans and programs, it is necessary to endure threat studies, to provide an understanding of the capabilit ies and intentions of terrorist groups, picture surveys, to reveal the weakness that terrorist can attack and Analysis of all the effects of terrorism. D. PSYOPS article of faith prescribes the use off Propaganda Analysis to determine the effects of activities, programs or campaigns. The basic approaches in this procedure are analysis of Source, Contents, Audience, Media, and set up (SCAME). Propaganda is the primary vehicle of psychological warfare.It includes any activity that affects emotion, attitude and behavior of a target audience (Marchetti, 1976) HOME heavy(p) TERRORISM Scott Redd, coach of the National Counterterrorism Center, verbalise in a written parameter to the Senate that the emergence of home-grown terrorist groups is posing real challenges for U. S. politics despite law enforcement successes at disrupting potential attacks. Most security and counterterrorism officials believed that the next terrorist attack will not be the work of well-trained al-Qaeda oper atives sent from abroad, but alternatively that of an American citizen.The White dramatic arts National schema for Combating Terrorism says the chief(prenominal) terrorist threat today comes from those who exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends. Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist ideology share several qualities youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a hungriness to feel self-importance, and a need to be part of a group. organized religion can be compelling to such individuals, who are then prone to growing by deceitful religious leaders. R. P.Eddy, senior brother for counterterrorism at the Manhattan Institute, says, If you think of any heathenishal community in this country there are people of all stripes. However, he suggests counterterrorism efforts should pay tightlipped attention to Muslim communities in the United on lessons from the attacks in Madrid in 2003 and London in 2004, which originated in Muslim communities. Th e White Houses National Strategy for Combating Terrorism says that the main terrorist threat today comes from those who exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends. Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist ideology share several qualities youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a longsighteding to feel self-importance, and a need to be part of a group. Religion can be compelling to such individuals, who are then prone to exploitation by deceitful religious leaders. The relationship between American Muslims and homegrown terrorism. though many of the homegrown terrorists identified in the United State especially since the 9/11 attacks have been Muslims, it is important to honour that religious motivations are not yield in all instances.It is suggested that counterterrorism efforts should pay close attention to Muslim communities in the United States, where al-Qaedas message of radical Islam is more likely to resonate. How have Muslim communities in the United States responded to the growing fright over homegrown terrorists? By and large, American Muslims express great concern over the opportunity of homegrown terrorists in their midst. To this end, members of Islamic communities have worked to establish good relationships with U. S. officials, especially on the local level.Hussein Ibish, executive director of the Hala Salaam Maksoud Foundation for Arab-American Leadership, says in impairment of counterterrorism efforts, Most of the major successes the government claims within the United States have actually problematical cooperation with the local Muslim communities. How have U. S. officials reacted to the prospect of homegrown terrorists? Experts judge government responses as mixed. Generally speaking, the local approach proves most effective. Eddy says local police are the best tool the government has for preventing homegrown terrorists.Good community policingestablishing relationships and keeping abreast of trends in a neighborhood based on common interests other than terrorismunderpins any effort to detect a homegrown plot. Eddy views officers as first preventers and not just as first responders, but it remains incumbent on political leaders to support them as such Home-grown cells were a new domestic phenomenon for which the FBI and law enforcement agencies had no baseline for measuring the exfoliation of the problem CONCLUSION Terrorism is a crime committed by a handful of extremist elements and should not be ad equated with any specific ethnic group or religion.Under no deal should double standards in applying this principle be allowed. To fight terrorism effectively requires efforts to incubate its ideological, socioeconomic and political root causes. This should involve strategies aimed at currently solving both current problems and identifying permanent solutions in the long run. An important prerequisite in this linkup is to resolve the question of development and finalize the gap be tween the rich and the poor. The so called war on terror is not just a war that can be won by sole reliance on military and coercive measures.Recommendation The country should review and strengthen national mechanism to combat terrorism. Efforts in suppressing sources of coin must be doubled. The country ask to continuously deepen seeking cooperation from allies country in enforcing anti-terrorist program and practices. bust regional capacity building programmed to enhance existing capabilities to detect, monitor and report terrorist acts and plans. chant cooperation at the bilateral, regional and international levels in combating terrorism in a comprehensive manner and affirm that at the international level.Convene a high level of ad-hoc experts group as the lead to anti terrorism that will continue to focus on the preventions and control of terrorism. To better deter and prevent potential acts of terrorism at home, the state should enact law that will stipulate the movement o f those who pose a terrorist threat to the community to include organizations which advocate terrorism. Holds responsible all public and private organizations abetting terrorism Calls for greater vigilance and concrete measures against all possible terrorist supplies, materials and finances.The country should designate storage locker Oversight Committee on internecine Security as the lead to anti terrorism. Americans had to accustom to new security measures that intricate their travel, work, and recreation. United States agencies rearranged their priorities, and local governments scrambled to present preparations for potential terrorist attacks, possibly involving biological, chemical, or even nuclear weapons. References Banlaoi, 2004, War on Terrorism, Rex bookstall Inc. , Recto Avenue Desker, B. , and Kumar R. ,( 2002) Forging an Indirect Strategy in Southeast Asia. The washington Quarterly, hoi polloi 25, No. 2 Dulles, A. , (1972) The Craft of Intelligence, New York, wermer paperback, Marchetti, V. (1976), The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York, Pell Agam, H. ,(2001) Measure to make it International Terrorism New York, make-up Back. Ganor, B. (2003)Defining Terrorism Is One Mans Terrorist Another Mans license Fighter, http//terror. host. net. kg Homer, D. (2003) The Rise of Complex Terrorism, http//www. Foreignpolicy. com http//counterterrorism. org/mt/pings. cgi/3655 .