Thursday, December 13, 2018
'Deviant Behavior / The Social Learning Theory Essay\r'
'A some genius would be considered to be acting in a aberrant manner indoors a well-disposed setting if they be violating the established social Ã¢â¬Å" averageÃ¢â¬Â within that particular culture. What causes a human cosmos to act in accredited(a) delegacys is a disputed topic among researchers. in that respect are trine types of researchers that urinate tried to adjudicate this question. thither is the psychological, biological, and the sociological approach. With all of the studies that have been performed, not ane root has provided an exact reason or commentary as to why heap behave in a unnatural manner. Although sociologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ theories have not been disproved as frequently as the psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ and biologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ theories because their experiments are too hard to plant and no one definition for deflexion is hold upon by all experimenters (Pfuhl, 1980, p. 40), the sociological perspective has provided the remainderly information conc erning why people exhibit deviance. The definition of deviant behaviour is considered to be broad with sixfold viewpoints which makes it complicated and difficult to find an accurate answer (Pfuhl, 1980, p. 18). This is why this topic is so important in the study of sociology. Sociologists have to a greater extent information, and therefore whitethorn be closer to finding the best history for the major contributing factors in explaining the teaching of deviant manner(s) within a certain culture. For this reason, the main localise of this paper is based on the sociological footstall point of deviance based upon the amicable knowledge guess and social reaction(s) to deviant bearing(s).\r\nAccording to The tender cultivation Theory (Bandura, 1977), one individual raise interpret simply by observe the air of an new(prenominal) individual (DeLamater, 2011, p. 10). The family is the major standoff to socialization in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment (Four Categories of Fa mily Functions that look to Promote dilapidated Behavior, p. 1). In the family, divorce, deviation within family, neglect, abuse, and deviant parents are the main determinates for the offspringÃ¢â¬â¢s actions or behavior. Early researchers first thought enate absence yet affected girls and members of the white population. innovational research finds that the lack of supervision or actualize of the churlÃ¢â¬â¢s subscribes is a link to delinquency in whatever race. It occurs often in single parent homes because they have a to a greater extent difficult time providing supervision and support. Poverty fag end be an separate reason within the family for conflict because it send packing lead to both family breakups and delinquency.\r\n children need close and supportive relationships with parents. The inability to talk to parents in addition promotes deviance within the home. The child may shade that they need to obtain wariness elsewhere, thus acting in a deviant man ner if their parents are not there to provide guidance and support. Parents can keep this type of behavior by being competent, providing non-aggressive punishment, and by being supportive in order to var. the childÃ¢â¬â¢s self-confidence. Family conflict has more change effects on children than divorce, whereas parental death has slight impact than divorce (Four Categories of Family Functions that Seem to Promote Delinquent Behavior, p. 2). When a parent dies a child at least knows that the parent did not want to move over on his own terms and probably did not inflict any abuse to his or her individual before the parent passes away.\r\nAlso, if a child unruffled has contact with both parents after a divorce the less likely the child go away intuitive feeling neglected and feel the need to react with deviant behavior. Family size also leaves an adolescent without the necessary attention they need as an individual. Middle children are more likely to exhibit deviant behavior because they go unnoticed more than their younger or honest-to-god siblings. The legal definition of abuse and neglect varies from aver to state but does, in any form, make water serious consequences for behavior. This abuse and/or neglect occurs in sustained patterns, which causes stress, poor self-esteem, aggressiveness, lack of empathy, and fewer interactions with peers. Child abuse is defined as any animal(prenominal) or activated trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation is found. Neglect refers to the privation that children suffer at the hands of parents ( diversion: Behavior that Violates Norms, p. 1). such(prenominal) components that apply to these definitions are non-accidental physical injury and neglect, emotional abuse or neglect, versed abuse, and abandonment. Over one million youth in America are subjected to abuse separately year. In terms of sexual abuse, one in ten abused are boys, and one in three of them are girls. It is unexplored how many cases go unreported in any country of abuse or neglect each year. From 1980 to 1986, the number of reported cases rose sixty percent. The nigh common reason for parents abusing their children is due to a lettered function they acquired from their parents. This tendency to pass down deviant behavior through generations is a cycle of family force-out (Lemert, 1972, p. 48). Parents are unable to separate childhood traumas from the relationships they have with their own kids. Another unhealthy thing to guide from a parent is the feeling of isolation from family and friends. This is more common is single parent families and lower socioeconomic classes. If a person is living in a lower class, single-parent environment, that person is at a real disadvantage.\r\nIt may be because they do not feel they are good enough to belong in the realms of nine. Delinquency is when a child acts out their dislike towards the parent or abuser in a deviant manner (Lemert, 1972, p. 59). Parents need to provide equal to(predicate) guidance and punishment to their child when the child exhibits deviant behavior; however, the problem is that some parents do not chance upon or choose not to see the childÃ¢â¬â¢s deviant behavior.\r\nOther influences extraneous of the home can cause a person to act in a deviant manner. Peers, media images, and other people in social club establish what the Ã¢â¬Å"averageÃ¢â¬Â should be in a preyn area or culture. What is considered Ã¢â¬Å" formulaÃ¢â¬Â can be comparatively different in various areas of the world. What is considered deviant can be changed over time once ordering as a whole feels more satisfied and accepting of the certain type of deviant behavior. For instance, only certain people once obtained tattoos and now it is a current fad to cover the entire frame with them. Media portrays models and famous figures with unusual tattoos, piercings, and certain attitudes as Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬Â and acceptable to teenagers in todayÃ¢ â¬â¢s culture. There are more devil-worshipers, or so they portray, in the music business. This implies to children that it is cool to wear the black fit out and act somewhat gothic. This is just one ex ample.\r\nIt may depend on the person as to how much their peers and media influence them to go against the Ã¢â¬Å"normsÃ¢â¬Â. Once a person is labeled deviant, they usually continue to respond to society as if they are deviant. This aspect of deviance is called The Labeling Theory. There are sociologists who seek to find why certain acts are defined as criminal, and others are not. They also question how and why certain people suit defined as a criminal or deviant. In this realm of study, the acts that they perform are not significant to the criminals, but it is the social reaction to them that is (Becker, p. 1). The rejoinder and label from other individuals in society, such as peers, are how the individuals view themselves. When a person performs a deviant act, they are a nd then labeled by society and separated from the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬Â people. Such labels in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society are whore, abuser, loser, etcetera These people are then outsiders and associate with other individuals who have been cast out of the societal Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬Â. When more and more people within the Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬Â of society think of these people as deviant, then these people performing deviant behaviors think they are deviant too. The Labeling Theory states that once they feel this way, they will continue to behave in the way society now expects them to behave. The question is, are humans genetically predisposed to deviant behavior, or do the people around them influence them to act in this way?\r\nThe sociological perspective is the factor that has been the least questioned explanation even though it does not always give the exact justification for the origin of the deviant behavior. Sociologists learn from cultural influences in lieu of biological or psycholo gical biases. Rather than concern with behavior from certain people, sociologists view deviance as a behavior engaged in a person by having a common sociocultural or the uniform experiences within a culture. Edwin H. Sutherland explains that deviant and non-deviant behaviors are larn in the same ways through his differential gear Association Theory. Sutherland demonstrates that criminal behavior is learned from paint a picture groups by the means of communication. When they learn how to act in a deviant manner, they know what is involved in, and what drives a person to commit a crime. This does vary in people who have different characteristics and learning abilities. However, one group may view certain behavior as deviant, i.e. steal, while others may view shoplifting as justified because businesses charge too much money. The viewpoint of each group develops by observing others and imitating their behavior, otherwise known as The Social Learning Theory (DeLamater, 2011, p. 386). Whatever the cause of deviant behavior, it is a major problem within society.\r\nThe exact determinates that ease up to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s deviant behavior are controversial. It may be from inherited traits, behavior learned from society and family, or even a combination of the two. The social interaction certainly leads to The Labeling Theory and how individuals may strive to meet the expectations of their Ã¢â¬Å"labeledÃ¢â¬Â identity. However, The Social Learning Theory seems to best explain the major environmental influences on children by family members and peers which contribute to the development of deviant behavior and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to various behaviors that are considered to be deviant.\r\nBibliography\r\nBecker, H. S. (n.d.). Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved from http://home.ici.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html DeLamater, J. &. (2011). Social Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Deviance: Behavior that Violates Norms. (n.d.). Retri eved from http://www.elco.pa.us/Academics/Social_Studies/ vexation/ITTP_2/Chap.8.html Four Categories of Family Functions that Seem to Promote Delinquent Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mpcc.cc.ne.us/aseffles/delcrslides/ch.09/tsld012.html Lemert, E. M. (1972). piece Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Pfuhl, E. H. (1980). The Deviance Process. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.\r\n'